Lichen determination keys
- common Malesian lichen genera -
[BGBM-Foto klein]

Key to the lichen genera of Bogor, Cibodas and Singapore

by H. Sipman, 18 Sept. 2003

The key is based on recent observations in Bogor, Cibodas and Singapore, and may be of use for inhabited places throughout Java, Sumatra and Malaya. Contributions and corrections were received from Isidro Savillo and participants of training courses in Bogor in 2001 and 2003. Additional genera are expected, because the region is poorly known lichenologically.  For explanation of the terms, see glossary. Please inform me, when you find additional genera, so that I can add them to the key.

1a Thallus fruticose (divided in rounded or flattened slips or branches standing or hanging free in the air, without clearly differentiated underside, attached to the substrate only in a small, basal area) --- 2
1b Thallus not fruticose (flattened and with a differentiated underside, attached to the substrate by its whole underside or by parts of it or by thread-like structures (rhizines or cilia)) --- 30

2a Thallus dimorphic (composed of cylindrical, vertical parts and squamulose, granular or coralloid, horizontal parts, particularly present at the base); usually on soil or among moss --- 3
2b Thallus uniform; usually on tree bark --- 7

3a Fruticose parts with terminal apothecium, usually under 0.5 cm long --- 4
3b Fruticose parts mostly without apothecia, usually over 1 cm long --- 5

4a Apothecia brown --- Baeomyces
4b Apothecia yellowish to pink --- Dibaeis

5a Thallus with flattened squamules, which are green-grey above and white below; vertical parts hollow; cephalodia absent --- Cladonia
5b Thallus with granular to cylindrical or coralloid branchlets, which are uniformly pale grey; vertical parts solid; cephalodia present or absent --- 6

6a Branchlets with smooth surface (cortex present); cephalodia present; on exposed rock --- Stereocaulon
6b Branchlets with felt-like surface (cortex absent); cephalodia absent; among moss on sheltered tree trunks in forest --- Leprocaulon arbuscula (Nyl.) Nyl.

7a (2) Thallus lobes more or less flattened, solid or hollow, without elastic central string --- 8
7b Thallus lobes cylindrical, always solid, with elastic central string --- Usnea

8a Thallus yellow, surface K+ dark violet --- Teloschistes flavicans (Sw.) Norm.
8b Thallus greenish to pale grey, surface K- or + yellow-red --- 9

9a Thallus greenish grey to yellow, photobiont Trebouxia (isolated, rounded cells) --- 10
9b Thallus brownish grey, photobiont Trentepohlia (somewhat elongated cells arranged in irregularly branching threads) --- Roccella montagnei Bél.

10a Thallus pale grey; among moss on sheltered tree trunks in forest --- Bunodophoron
10b Thallus greenish grey; on exposed branches --- Ramalina

30a (1) Thallus foliose (with free underside), often with a lower cortex, attached to the substrate by thread-like structures (rhizines or cilia) or by small spots on the underside, usually several cm. wide --- 31
30b Thallus crustose (attached to the substrate by the whole underside), or squamulose (with scale-like compartments which are more or less raised and rarely exceed 1-2 mm) --- 99

31a Thallus spongy, composed of loosely connected filaments --- 32
31b Thallus compact, sometimes with filamentous cover on lower and/or upper side --- 33

32a Photobiont a cyanobacterium --- Dictyonema
32b Photobiont Trentepohlia (see 9b) --- Coenogonium

33a Photobiont a cyanobacterium, usually Nostoc --- 34
33b Photobiont a green alga, usually Trebouxia --- 48

34a Thallus gelatinous, in section composed of a gelatinous sheet containing Nostoc cells in chains and fungal hyphae --- 35
34b Thallus not gelatinous, in section composed of an upper cortex, and algal layer with dense algal cells, and an algae-free medullary layer composed of fungal hyphae surrounded by air --- 37

35a Thallus in section with an outer, one cell wide, cellular layer --- Leptogium
35b Thallus in section without outer cellular layer --- 36

36a Ascospores without septa --- Physma byrsaeum (Ach.) Tuck.
36b Ascospores transversely septate to muriform --- Collema

37a Thallus with white or yellowish dots below (cyphellae or pseudocyphellae) --- 38
37b Thallus without such dots --- 39

38a Cyphellae present --- Sticta
38b Pseudocyphellae present --- Pseudocyphellaria

39a Underside of thallus with raised, vein-like structures --- 40
39b Underside of thallus without veins --- 42

40a On exposed tree trunks and branches; thallus usually under 5 cm diam.; lower side attached to substrate by patches of thick tomentum; apothecia with constricted base, submarginal --- Erioderma
40b Among moss on soil, rock, or tree trunks; thallus often over 10 cm. diam.; lower side attached to substrate by more or less rhizine-like bundles of hyphae --- 41

41a On soil, occasionally on tree bases; upper surface flat; apothecia on small, erect marginal lobes --- Peltigera
41b On tree trunks and branches; upper surface scrobiculate; apothecia laminal on upper surface of thallus --- Lobaria

42a Upper side smooth, often concentrically striate --- 43
42b Upper side rough to hairy --- Erioderma

43a Upper side often concentrically striate --- Coccocarpia
43b Upper side not concentrically striate --- 44

44a Apothecia laminal on upper surface of thallus --- Leioderma
44b Apothecia marginal on lower side but on incurved lobule and therefore visible from above --- Nephroma helveticum Ach.

48a (33) Thallus bright yellow, in shade more greenish yellow --- Candelaria concolor (Dicks.) Stein
48b Thallus pale- to greenish grey --- 49

49a Underside of lobes covered by a thick, convex, dark brown, spongy layer, without proper lower cortex --- Anzia
49b Underside of lobes without such layer, covered by a thin lower cortex or with the white or yellowish medulla exposed --- 50

50a Rhizines and/or cilia (marginal rhizines) present, distinct from the beginning; lower cortex present or absent; tomentum absent --- 51
50b Rhizines and cilia absent or developping from bundled tomentum hyphae; lower cortex always present, but sometimes covered by fur-like layer of loose hyphae (tomentum) --- 73

51a Cilia present --- 52
51b Cilia absent --- 66

52a Lower side without cortex --- Heterodermia
52b Lower side with cortex --- 53

53a Rhizines absent; thallus lobes canaliculate --- Everniastrum
53b Rhizines present, over the whole underside or absent from a marginal zone --- 54

54a Lower side with rhizines absent from marginal zone --- Parmotrema
54b Lower side with rhizines till the margin --- 55

55a Cilia with swollen base (bulbate) --- 56
55b Cilia without swollen base --- 57

56a Thallus upper side greenish to yellowish grey, K-, KC+ yellow (usnic acid present) --- Relicina (key to species)
56b Thallus upper side pale grey, K+ yellow, KC- (atranorin present) --- Bulbothrix

57a Thallus upper side greenish to yellowish grey, K-, KC+ yellow (usnic acid present) --- Relicinopsis
57b Thallus upper side pale grey, K+ yellow, KC- (atranorin present) --- 58

58a Thallus lobes narrow, under 5 mm wide; thallus deeply divided --- 59
58b Thallus lobes wide, over 3 mm and usually up to 10 mm wide; thallus often shallowly divided, resembling Parmotrema --- 60

59a Medulla white, C+ red or rose; lobe axils rounded --- Parmelinopsis
59b Medulla yellow, C- or C+ yellow; lobe axils not rounded --- Myelochroa

60a Upper side finely white-reticulate (use lens!); rhizines on lower side of very variable length --- Rimelia
60b Upper side not reticulate; rhizines on lower side near the margin uniform or of two types --- 61

61a Rhizines uniform; thallus closely attached --- Parmelinella wallichiana (Taylor) Elix & Hale
61b Rhizines of two types, long and very short; thallus loosely attached --- Canomaculina

66a (51) Rhizines dichotomously branched, black --- Hypotrachyna
66b Rhizines simple or irregularly branched, or white --- 67

67a Thallus shallowly dissected, with rounded, ca. 3-10 mm wide lobes; rhizines on underside absent from marginal zone --- Parmotrema
67b Thallus deeply dissected, with linear to irregular lobes; rhizines on underside present till the margin --- 68

68a Lower side brown at the margin, black towards the centre; ascospores without septa, colourless --- 69
68b Lower side white or yellowish or grey to black at the margin, of the same colour or darker towards the centre; ascospores transversely septate and grey to brown --- 71

69a Thallus upper side greenish to yellowish grey, K-, KC+ yellow (with usnic acid) --- Flavoparmelia caperata (L.) Hale
69b Thallus upper side pale grey, K+ yellow, KC- (with atranorin) --- 70

70a Thallus upper side with elongate pseudocyphellae in reticulate pattern; pustular soralia present --- Parmelia erumpens Kurok.
70b Thallus upper surface without pseudocyphellae; farinose soralia or isidia present --- Canoparmelia

71a Pseudocyphellae present along the margin and sometimes on the surface, elongate and sometimes forming a reticulate pattern; cortex often without atranorin (K-); ascocarps with lecideine margin --- Pyxine
71b Pseudocyphellae absent; cortex always containing atranorin (K+ yellow); ascocarps with lecanorine margin --- 72

72a Upper surface finely longitudinally striate, principally composed of hyphae running in the direction of the lobe, showing as circles in transverse section --- Heterodermia
72b Upper surface without longitudinal striation, composed of unoriented hyphae, mostly showing as lines in transverse section --- Physcia

73a (50) Tomentum present on lower side, at least in patches; lower side usually pale; thallus usually loosely attached and easily separable from substrate, with wide, often over 10 mm wide lobes --- 74
73b Tomentum completely absent from lower side; lower side black; thallus closely appressed and not easily separable from substrate, with 0.5-2 mm wide lobes --- 76

74a Underside with white or yellow dots (cyphellae or pseudocyphellae) --- 75
74b Underside without such dots --- Lobaria

75a Cyphellae present --- Sticta
75b Pseudocyphellae present --- Pseudocyphellaria

76a Thallus hollow (with black lower cortex separated from white or yellowish medulla by wide cavity); lobes swollen and more or less tubular --- 77
76b Thallus solid (with black or pale lower cortex attached to medulla); lobes flat --- 78

77a Thallus with perforations on upper side; ascospores over 20 mu long --- Menegazzia
77b Thallus without perforations on upper side; ascospores up to 20 mu long --- Hypogymnia

78a Thallus rosette-shaped, with marginal lobes, closely appressed --- 79
78b Thallus consisting of raised squamules ca. 1-2 mm long and 0.5 mm wide, attached only at their base --- Eschatogonia

79a Thallus upper surface K+ yellow (with atranorin), with marginal pseudocyphellae, continuous in the centre --- Dirinaria
79a Thallus upper surface K- (without atranorin), without marginal pseudocyphellae, with discrete lobes in the centre --- Hyperphyscia (key to species)

99a (30) Ascocarps present --- 100
99b Ascocarps absent (only a few characteristic taxa treated) --- 290

100a Ascocarps disc-like, more or less rounded; hymenium exposed --- 101
100b Ascocarps elongate or star-like branched; hymenium exposed or not --- 200
100c Ascocarps flask-shaped, rounded or in irregular groups; hymenium not exposed, but ascocarp opening by a dot-like pore --- 250

101a Ascocarps distinctly stalked; stalk longer than apothecium height --- 102
101b Ascocarps sessile or immersed --- 104

102a Thallus squamulose; ascocarps pale brown --- Thysanothecium scutellatum (Fr.) D.J. Gallow.
102b Thallus crustose --- 103

103a Ascocarps black on long, black, needle-like stalk, altogether ca. 1 mm long; on trunks --- Calicium hyperelloides Nyl.
103b Ascocarps pink on pale, ca. 1 mm wide and several mm long stalks; on road banks --- Dibaeis

104a Ascospores pigmented, grey to brown --- 105
104b Ascospores colourless --- 107

105a Mazaedium present (the ascospores are discharged from the asci in early stage and ripen in a layer on top of the hymenium, which stains the finger when touched); ascocarps with lecanorine margin --- Tylophoron moderatum Nyl.
105b Mazaedium absent (the ascospores ripen in the asci and the ascocarps do not stain the finger when touched); ascocarp margin variable --- 106

106a Ascocarp margin lecideine --- Buellia (sensu lato)
106b Ascocarp margin lecanorine --- Rinodina

107a Ascospores without septa --- 108
107b Ascospores with one or more, transverse and sometimes also longitudinal, septa --- 120

108a Ascospores over 30 per ascus --- Acarospora
108b Ascospores 8 or less per ascus --- 109

109a Thallus squamulose, often on a felt-like hypothallus --- 110
109b Thallus crustose, continuous or areolate to granular --- 115

110a Squamules byssoid (consisting of loose hyphae), without cortex --- Crocynia
110b Squamules not byssoid, with cortex (with smooth upper side of compacted hyphae) --- 111

111a Photobiont green; felt-like prothallus present, pale to brown, or absent --- 112
111b Photobiont blue-green; felt-like prothallus present, black --- 114

112a Felt-like hypothallus present; thallus squamules with dull lower side (lower cortex absent) --- 113
112b Felt-like hypothallus absent; thallus squamules with glossy lower side (lower cortex present) --- Eschatogonia

113a Thallus squamules usually with raised tips, 0.5-2 mm long; cephalodia absent --- Phyllopsora
113b Thallus squamules forming usually several cm long, branching, appressed lobes; cephalodia present, consisting of grey, marginal lobules --- Pannaria sphinctrina (Mont.) Hue

114a Asci with an apical I+ blue plug; hymenium I+ blue --- Parmeliella
114b Asci without apical plug or with I+ greenish plug; hymenium I+ blue-greenish, usually turning brown --- Pannaria

115a (109) Spores over 50 mu long; ascocarps immersed in thallus warts --- Pertusaria
115b Spores not over 30 mu long; ascocarps sessile --- 116

116a Ascocarp margin lecanorine --- Lecanora
116b Ascocarp margin biatorine or lecideine --- 117

117a Asci with I+ blue tholus --- 118
117b Asci with I-negative tholus, or with weakly I+ blue, tubular structure in tholus --- 119

118a Apothecia brown, K- --- Biatora (sensu latissimo)
118b Apothecia dark red, K+ dark violet --- Pyrrhospora

119a Hymenium I+ blue; on bark --- Malcolmiella
119b Hymenium I- (reddish); on loamy soil or stones on soil --- Trapelia

120a (107) Hymenium I+ blue to brownish, the colour concentrated inside and/or on outside of the ascus tips --- 121
120b Hhymenium I+ blue to reddish or absent, the colour restricted to the hymenial jelly or the ascospores, ascus tips unstained --- 148

121a Ascospores with transverse septa only --- 122
121b Ascospores with transverse and longitudinal septa (muriform) --- 140

122a Ascospores with single septum --- 123
122b Ascospores with several septa --- 126

123a Ascospore septa much thickened, usually about as thick as the lumina; disc often orange, K+ dark violet --- Caloplaca
123b Ascospore septa about as thin as outer wall --- 124

124a Ascospores more than 20 mu wide --- Megalospora sulphurata Mey. & Flot. (key to further species)
124b Ascospores less than 20 mu wide --- 125

125a Ascocarp margin lecanorine --- Lecania (sensu lato)
125b Ascocarp margin biatorine or lecideine --- Catinaria

126a Ascocarp margin lecanorine; disc red --- Haematomma
126b Ascocarp margin biatorine or lecideine; disc not red --- 127

127a Ascocarps without proper margin, this disappearing in early stage of development --- 128
127b Ascocarp margin clearly present, except in old apothecia deformed by age --- 129

128a Ascocarps semiglobose to globular; on rock, bark or moss --- Micarea
128b Ascocarps flat, on leaves --- Byssolecania

129a Ascocarps with byssoid outer margin --- Byssoloma
129b Ascocarps with compact outer margin --- 130

130a Hymenial jelly present; asci and paraphyses sticking together and not easily separated unless by KOH-treatment --- 131
130b Hymenial jelly absent; asci and paraphyses free in water mounts --- Vezdaea

131a Tholus largely I+ blue with narrow I-negative axial mass --- Bacidia (sensu lato)
131b Tholus with I+ blue tubular structure --- 132

132a Apothecia mostly under 0.5 mm wide, soon convex, with paraplectenchymatic exciple --- Fellhanera
132b Apothecia to over 1 mm wide, remaining more or less flat, with prosoplectenchymatic exciple --- Badimia

140a (121) Ascocarps yellow to red, K+ dark violet; campylidia absent --- 141
140b Ascocarps whitish, grey, brown or black, K- or not violet; campylidia present --- 142

141a Ascospores bacillar, not over 10 mu wide, usually 8/ascus; disc red --- Haematomma
141b Ascospores ovoid, over 10 mu wide, single; disc yellow to orange --- Brigantiaea tricolor (Mont.) Trevis.

142a Campylidia grey, directly on thallus --- Calopadia
142b Campylidia yellow or brown, on whitish thallus warts --- Sporopodium

148a (120) Ascocarps with several, sometimes dot-like discs --- 149
148b Ascocarps with single discs (unless deformed) --- 153

149a Ascospores with thickened septa and rounded lumina, I+ brownish --- Glyphis cicatricosa Ach.
149b Ascospores with thin septa, I-negative --- 150

150a Ascocarps elongate, discs in rows --- Enterographa
150b Ascocarps rounded, discs not in rows --- 151

151a Discs dot-like, dark --- 152
151b Discs wider, pinkish to whitish pruinose --- Syncesia

152a Thallus not byssoid, composed of compacted hyphae --- Chiodecton
152b Thallus byssoid, composed of loose hyphae --- Dichosporidium

153a (148) Ascocarps sessile with constricted base, without algal margin --- 154
153b Ascocarps immersed in thallus or thallus warts --- 163

154a Ascocarps with carbonized (dark brown to black) parts in hypothecium and sometimes also in margin --- 155
154b Ascocarps without carbonized parts --- 160

155a Ascospores with thickened septa and rounded lumina, muriform --- Gyrostomum scyphuliferum (Ach.) Nyl.
155b Ascospores with thin septa and edged lumina, without or with transverse septa, rarely muriform --- 156

156a Ascocarps whitish pruinose --- 157
156b Ascocarps black or with yellowish- or reddish-pruinose disc --- 158

157a Ascocarps with thin margin, convex from an early stage --- Catarraphia dictyoplaca (Mont. et v.d.Bosch) Massal.
157b Ascocarps with thick, prominent margin, remaining flat for a long time --- Lecanactis

158a Paraphyses easily free, scarcely branched except near the tips; tips swollen and with brown pigment; disc black --- Bactrospora
158b Paraphyses densely branched and not easily free, less distinct --- 159

159a Ascocarp margin carbonized, black; disc often yellow- or red-pruinose --- Cresponea
159b Ascocarp margin not carbonized, white --- Graphidastra multiformis (see 210)

160a (154) Ascospores with single transverse septum; ascocarps usually yellow to orange --- Dimerella
160b Ascospores with several septa, transverse and often also longitudinal --- 161

161a Thallus with ca. 1 mm long hairs --- Tricharia
161b Thallus without hairs --- 162

162a Thallus with scale-like or bristle-like hyphophores; photobiont cells rounded, separate --- Gyalideopsis
162b Thallus without hyphophores; photobiont cells elongated and connected in irregularly branching threads --- Gyalecta

163a (153) Ascospores with thickened septa and rounded lumina, often I+ blue to violet --- 164
163b Ascospores with thin septa or without septa, I- or occasionally I+ pale blue --- 167

164a Ascocarps with carbonized parts --- 165
164b Ascocarps without carbonized parts --- 166

165a Carbonized parts in ring around hymenium and sometimes forming a central columella in the hymenium --- Ocellularia
165b Carbonized part mainly in hypothecium --- Phaeographis

166a Hymenium with thin proper exciple separated from thalline margin by a split and bearing periphyses --- Thelotrema
166b Hymenium not separated from thalline margin or without periphyses on proper exciple --- Myriotrema

167a Ascocarps surrounded by a raised thallus rim --- 168
167b Ascocarps surrounded by flat thallus or thallus rim not raised above the disc --- 169

168a Thallus rim around ascocarps lacerate --- Chroodiscus
168b Thallus rim around ascocarps smooth --- Echinoplaca

169a Ascocarps surrounded by a thallus rim to the level of the disc --- 170
169b Ascocarps without differentiated thallus rim --- 171

170a Thallus forming convex warts with scattered spines; foliicolous; ascocarp disc brownish --- Bullatina
170b Thallus continuous; foliicolous or not; ascocarp disc black --- Mazosia

171a Asci not embedded in proper hymenium with differentiated paraphyses and hymenial gelatine; ascocarps poorly differentiated, visible as whitish spots on the thallus --- Cryptothecia
171b Asci imbedded in proper hymenium with paraphyses and gelatine --- 172

172a Photobiont cells elongated and forming irregularly branching threads (Trentepohlia-like) --- 173
172b Photobiont cells rounded, isolated --- Echinoplaca

173a Ascospores transversely septate --- Arthonia
173b Ascospores muriform --- Arthothelium

200a (100) Ascospores with thickened septa and rounded lumina, often I+ blue-violet; paraphyses unbranched (family Graphidaceae) --- 201
NOTE: Provisionally the traditional generic division of the family Graphidaceae is followed here, although a new generic division is proposed by Staiger in 2002.
200b Ascospores with thin septa, I-negative; paraphyses usually densely branched and anastomosing --- 208

201a Ascocarps grouped in rounded or elongate groups surrounded by a matrix different from the thallus --- 202
201b Ascocarps solitary, linear or more or less richly branched --- 204

202a Ascospores remaining colourless --- Glyphis
202b Ascospores pale grey, turning dark brown when old --- 203

203a Spores transversely septate only --- Sarcographa
203b Spores muriform --- Sarcographina

204a Ascospores remaining colourless --- 205
204b Ascospores pale grey, turning dark brown when old --- 207

205a Ascocarps with raised margins including carbonized or non-carbonized excipular tissue; ascospores usually I+ dark brown-violet, sometimes I-negative --- 206
205b Ascocarps slit-like, without raised margins, or with swollen margins composed only of thallus tissue; ascospores I+ blue or pale blue, occasionally I-negative --- Fissurina

206a Ascospores with transverse septa only --- Graphis
206b Ascospores muriform --- Graphina

207a Ascospores with transverse septa only --- Phaeographis
207b Ascospores muriform --- Phaeographina

208a (200) Ascocarps with carbonized margin --- 209
208b Ascocarps without carbonized margin --- 210

209a Ascocarps with closed labia, at least when young, always elongate --- Opegrapha
209b Ascocarps always showing the disc, irregularly rounded to elongate --- Lecanographa

210a Ascocarps with carbonized hypothecium; ascospores spermatoid, ca. 40 x 3 mu, including ca. 25 mu long and 1 mu wide tail --- Graphidastra multiformis (Mont. & v.d.Bosch) Thor
210b Ascocarps completely uncarbonized; ascospores not spermatoid, over 5 mu wide --- 211

211a Ascocarps with lacerate thalline margins raised above the disc --- Chroodiscus
211b Ascocarps without thalline margin raised above the disc --- 212

212a Ascospores transversely septate only --- Arthonia
212b Ascospores muriform --- Arthothelium

250a (100) Ascospores without septum --- 251
250b Ascospores with one septum --- 253
250c Ascospores with several septa --- 257

251a Ascospores over 40 mu long; hymenium I+ blue; paraphyses clearly present --- Pertusaria
251b Ascospores under 40 mu long; hymenium I- or I+ red or I+ blue --- 252

252a Paraphyses present; hymenium I-negative --- Monoblastia pellucida Aptroot
252b Paraphyses indistinct; hymenium I+ blue or red --- Verrucaria

253a Ascospores grey --- Micromycothelia
253b Ascospores colourless --- 254

254a Asci with strongly decurrent tholus, reaching about the middle of the ascus, without ocular chamber; paraphyses indistinct --- Mycoporum
254b Asci with slightly decurrent tholus not extending beyond upper 20% of ascus, with or without ocular chamber; paraphyses distinct --- 255

255a Asci with ocular chamber surrounded by ring-like wall thickening; mainly corticolous --- 256
255b Asci without ring-like wall structure; mainly foliicolous --- Strigula

256a Ascospores over 70 mu long; campylidia frequent --- Musaespora
256b Ascospores under 50 mu long; campylidia absent --- Anisomeridium

257a (250) Paraphyses absent --- 258
257b Paraphyses present, distinct --- 260

258a Ascospores muriform; algal cells present in hymenium; thallus squamulose; on stone or bark --- Endocarpon
258b Ascospores transversely septate only; algal cells absent from hymenium; on leaves --- 259

259a Ascospores colourless --- Pocsia
259b Ascospores grey --- Microtheliopsis uleana Müll. Arg.

260a Ascospores colourless --- 261
260b Ascospores grey --- 267

261a Ascospore septa thin, lumina angular; asci with thin apical wall --- 262
261b Ascospore septa thick, lumina rounded; asci with thickened apical wall --- 264

262a Ascospores transversely septate only --- Porina
262b Ascospores muriform --- 263

263a Thallus medulla yellow --- Myeloconis erumpens P.M. McCarthy & Elix
263b Thallus medulla whitish --- Clathroporina

264a Ascospores transversely septate only --- 265
264b Ascospores muriform --- 266

265a Perithecia in groups with fused ostioles --- Astrothelium
265b Perithecia single or in groups, then with separate ostioles --- Trypethelium

266a Perithecia in groups with fused ostioles --- Laurera
266b Perithecia single or in groups, then with separate ostioles --- Cryptothelium

267a (260) Ascospores muriform, with thin septa --- Anthracothecium
267b Ascospores transversely septate or muriform, with thickened septa and rounded lumina --- Pyrenula

290a (99) Thallus squamulose, composed of scale-like compartments which are more or less raised and rarely exceed 1-2 mm --- 291
290b Thallus crustose in strict sense --- 300

291a Squamules rounded, scattered, pale grey, with elevated, often sorediate margin --- Normandina pulchella (Borrer) Nyl.
291b Squamules elongated and lacerate, in dense groups, greenish grey, not sorediate --- 292

292a Squamules byssoid, without cortex (consisting of loose hyphae) --- Crocynia
292b Squamules not byssoid, with cortex (with smooth upper side of compacted hyphae) --- 293

293a Squamules bluish grey, with papillose cortex cells; felt-like prothallus absent --- Psoroglaena
293b Squamules greenish grey, without papillose cortex; felt-like prothallus present --- 294

294a Photobiont green; felt-like prothallus pale to brown, or absent --- 295
294b Photobiont blue-green; felt-like prothallus black --- not identifiable to genus level without ascocarps

295a Felt-like hypothallus present; thallus squamules with dull lower side (lower cortex absent) --- 296
295b Felt-like hypothallus absent; thallus squamules with glossy lower side (lower cortex present) --- Eschatogonia

296a Thallus squamules usually with raised margins; cephalodia absent --- Phyllopsora
296b Thallus squamules appressed; cephalodia present, consisting of grey, marginal lobules --- Pannaria sphinctrina (Mont.) Hue

300a (290) Conidangia present, thalloid propagules absent --- 301
300b Conidangia absent, thalloid propagules present (soredia, isidia, schizidia, etc.) --- 350
300c Conidangia and thalloid propagules both absent --- not treated

301a Conidangia largely immersed in the thallus, recognizable as coloured spots or as swellings of the thallus --- 302
301b Conidangia with strongly exerted, at least about 0.5 mm long, flattened or cylindrical part --- 304

302a Conidangia visible only as low, irregular, slightly paler swellings on a smooth, continuous, greenish, varnish-like thallus; conidia variable, usually rod-shaped --- Dimerella
302b Conidangia with distinct, usually brown or black, pore, or more widely opened; thallus different --- 303

303a Conidangia widely opened --- Bacidia (sensu lato)
303b Conidangia immersed and visible by their ostiole only --- not treated

304a Conidangia with elongate, thorn-like extension --- 305
304b Conidangia with flattened, more or less ear- or leaf-shaped extension --- 306

305a Extension tube-like, ca. 0.5-1 mm long and 0.05 mm diam.; thallus a thin, pale crust with black perithecia --- Anisomeridium throwerae R.C. Harris
305b Extension solid, producing conidia in a lateral gelatinous mass --- Echinoplaca, Tricharia

306a Extension ear-shaped, with wide base sitting on the thallus or on a thallus wart (campylidium); conidia produced in cavity at the base --- 307
306b Extension leaf-shaped, with a cylindrical basal part and a flattened, often dentate upper part (hyphophore); conidia produced in gelatinous clump attached in flattened part --- Echinoplaca, Gyalideopsis

307a Extension sitting directly on the thallus, grey --- Calopadia, Tapellaria
307b Extension sitting on a thallus wart --- 308

308a Extension brown or yellow; foliicolous --- Sporopodium
308b Extension grey; corticolous --- Musaespora

350a (300) Isidia present --- 351
350b Schizidia present, rounded, produced in series on top of low warts; on trunks in forest --- Ocellularia berkeleyana (Mont.) Zahlbr.
350c Soredia or goniocysts present (few species treated) --- 355

351a Isidia cylindrical; thallus green; on bark in forest --- 352
351b Isidia cup-shaped; thallus yellowish; on leaves in forest --- Porina mirabilis Lücking & Vezda

352a Thallus distinctly lobed, with lobes free from substrate at their tips --- 353
352b Thallus completely attached, with indistinct margin; on bark in forest --- 354

353a Photobiont green; thallus much divided in scattered squamules --- Phyllopsora
353b Photobiont blue-green; thallus lobed and rosette-like --- Parmeliella brisbanensis (Knight) P.M.Jørg. & D.Galloway

354a Isidia thin and glossy; thallus smooth, green --- Porina distans Vezda
354b Isidia thick and byssoid; thallus byssoid, pale green --- Dichosporidium

355a (350) Thallus completely composed of soredia or granules --- 356
355b Thallus with delimited soralia or goniocystangia --- 358

356a Thallus bright yellow; soredia ca. 50 mu diam. --- Chrysothrix xanthina (Vain.) Kalb
356b Thallus greenish or greyish --- 357

357a Granules with feltlike surface, at the thallus margins coagulated in small lobules; C- --- Lepraria
357b Granules with smooth surface, equally dispersed; C+ orange --- Pyrrhospora quernea (Dicks.) Körb.

358a Soralia yellow; thallus green; in forest --- Myeloconis erumpens P.M. McCarthy & Elix
358b Soralia greyish --- 359

359a Soredia coarse, mixed with granules and globular isidia --- Graphina rufopruinosa A.W.Archer
359b Soredia fine-grained, of equal size --- 360

360a On tree bark; thallus thin, dark green, varnish-like, largely covered by fine-grained soralia; black ascocarps regularly present --- Buellia efflorescens Müll. Arg.
360b On road banks; large, indistinct thalli with scarce, rounded soralia --- Dibaeis sorediata Kalb & Gierl

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page editor: Harrie Sipman, this page last updated 1
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