[BGBM-Logo] Lichen determination keys
- neotropical Hypotrachyna -
[BGBM-Foto klein]

Revised key to Hypotrachyna (Parmeliaceae) in Tropical America
by H. Sipman, January 1998

An update is presented for the key published by Mason HALE in his monograph of neotropical Hypotrachyna (1975). Subsequent literature records are added, some rearrangements made and additional characters included.


1a    Thallus sorediate or pustulate or patchily with flaking cortex       2
1b    Thallus isidiate or isidiate-lobulate                               51
1c    Thallus lacking soredia, isidia and pustules                       101

2a    Thallus greenish yellow (usnic acid present)                         3
2b    Thallus whitish to ashy grey (usnic acid lacking)                    6

3a    Lobes very narrow, less than 1 mm wide; medulla K- (protocetraric 
      acid, skyrin); West Indies and southern Brazil, at 1200-1600 m
                                                  H. velloziae (Vainio) Hale
3b    Lobes 1-3 mm wide; medulla K+ red or K-                              4

4a    Medulla K- (protocetraric acid); southern Chile, Andes?
                                                H. flavovirens (Kurok.) Hale
4b    Medulla K+ yellow turning red                                        5

5a    Soralia sorediate, subapical, subcapitate (salazinic acid, sometimes 
      with norstictic acid); widespread above c. 2000 m
                                                     H. sinuosa (Smith) Hale
5b    Soralia pustulate, with or without granular soredia (salazinic and 
      norstictic acids); probably widespread above 2000 m
                                                 H. meyeri (Zahlbr.) Streim.

6a (2) Medulla uniformly pale yellow (barbatic acid group, secalonic acid A, 
      sometimes echinocarpic acid); capitate soralia present, usually 
      terminal on lobules; widespread above c. 2000 m
                                                H. endochlora (Leight.) Hale
6b    Medulla white                                                        7

7a    Soralia present, distinctly sorediate, often capitate, at age
      sometimes finely pustular                                            8
7b    Pustules or patchily flaking cortex present, sometimes partly 
      sorediate                                                           23

8a    Soralia generally terminal or subterminal on lobules                 9
8b    Soralia laminal toward the center of the thallus                    19

9a    Medulla K+ yellow turning red (salazinic acid); widespread above c. 
      2000 m                                     H. brevirhiza (Kurok.) Hale
9b    Medulla K- or slowly dull yellowish                                 10

10a   Medulla C+ rose, red, or yellow-orange                              11
10b   Medulla C- (if KC+ yellow-orange, see 13a, barbatic acid group)     16

11a   Soralia more irregular and diffuse; medulla P-, C+ rose (gyrophoric 
      acid); widespread above c. 2000 m              H. revoluta (Flk.) Hale
11b   Soralia orbicular, distinct, often capitate                         12

12a   Medulla P+ red, C+ rose (gyrophoric, echinocarpic and microphyllinic 
      acids); Mexico, on conifers at c. 2000 m   H. thysanotha (Kurok.) Hale
12b   Medulla P-, C+ yellow-orange, red or rose                           13

13a   Medulla C+ yellow-orange (barbatic acid group); widespread above
      c. 2000 m                                    H. laevigata (Smith) Hale
13b   Medulla C+ rose or red                                              14

14a   Lobes canaliculate; lower side with marginal rhizines only 
      (evernic and lecanoric acids); Colombia, Costa Rica, at 2300 m
                                                   H. everniastroides Sipman
14b   Lobes linear to subirregular; lower side equally covered by rhizines
                                                                          15

15a   Medulla P-, C+ rose (evernic and lecanoric acids); widespread at 
      1000-3500 m                                   H. rockii (Zahlbr.) Hale
15b   Medulla P-, C+ rose (gyrophoric acid, unknowns); USA, West Indies?
                                                     H. oostingii (Dey) Hale
15c   Medulla P-, C+ red (anziaic acid); mountains of USA and Colombia, at 
      2000-3600 m                                           H. producta Hale

16a   Medulla P+ red, UV-                                                 17
16b   Medulla P-, UV+ white (alectoronic acid)                            18

17a   Lobes 1-2 mm wide; thallus closely adnate (protocetraric acid); 
      Mexico, West Indies, Venezuela, Chile, at 1800-2200 m
                                               H. pseudosinuosa (Asah.) Hale
17b   Lobes 2-5 mm wide; thallus loosely attached (fumarprotocetraric and 
      succinprotocetraric acids, skyrin under soralia); widespread at 1000-
      2200 m                                     H. gondylophora (Hale) Hale

18a   Thallus adnate; lobes short; Mexico, West Indies, Central America, at 
      900-1200 m                                  H. exsplendens (Hale) Hale
18b   Thallus loosely attached; lobes long-divaricate; widespread at 2000-
      3700 m                                 H. densirhizinata (Kurok.) Hale

19a (8) Thallus UV+ yellow (lichexanthone in cortex); lobes narrow, about 
      1 mm wide; thallus closely adnate (echinocarpic acid); Venezuela, 
      Dominican Republic, at 1000-1250 m (similar plants with barbatic acid 
      or other compounds from the Dominican Republic may represent 
      undescribed species)                               H. adaffinis Sipman
19b   Thallus UV- (atranorin in cortex)                                   20

20a   Lobes narrow, about 1 mm wide; thallus closely adnate (echinocarpic 
      acid, atranorin); widespread at 1000-2000 m
                                                H. subaffinis (Zahlbr.) Hale
20b   Lobes 1-5 mm wide; thallus loosely adnate                           21

21a   Medulla C+ red (gyrophoric acid); widespread above c. 2000 m
                                                     H. revoluta (Flk.) Hale
21b   Medulla C-                                                          22

22a   Medulla P+ red (protocetraric acid, skyrin); Mexico, West Indies, at 
      1400-2000 m                           H. croceopustulata (Kurok.) Hale
22b   Medulla P- (colensoic, 4-0-methylphysodic, lividic acids, associates, 
      skyrin); Venezuela, Brazil, Argentina, at (?-)2000-3000 m
                                                 H. immaculata (Kurok.) Hale

23a (7) Thallus UV+ yellow (lichexanthone in cortex)                      24
23b   Thallus UV- (atranorin in cortex)                                   25

24a   Lobes 1-2 mm wide (protocetraric and alectoronic acids, skyrin); 
      south-eastern Brazil                            H. malmei (Lynge) Hale
24b   Lobes 1-5 mm wide (colensoic, norcolensoinic, 4-0-methylphysodic, 
      physodic, lividic acids, associates, rarely protocetraric acid, skyrin 
      if pigmented); widespread at 900-3000 m
         H. osseoalba (Vain.) Park & Hale (syn. H. formosana (Zahlbr.) Hale)

25a   Medulla C+ rose or red                                              26
25b   Medulla C-                                                          28

26a   Medulla C+ red, KC+ orange; pustules erumpent and becoming coarsely 
      granular, with yellow to orange pigment in medulla (4-0-
      demethylmicrophyllinic acid, olivetoric acid, skyrin); Argentina, on 
      rock at 2200 m                             H. leiophylla (Kurok.) Hale
26b   Medulla C+ rose, KC+ red (gyrophoric acid)                          27

27a   Pustules present, isidiate and solid; Uruguay, under 1000 m
                                                      H. osorioi (Hale) Hale
27b   Soralia present, with more or less soredia or flaking cortex; 
      widespread above c. 2000 m                     H. revoluta (Flk.) Hale

28a   Pustules often becoming sorediate; medulla P+ red (protocetraric acid,
      skyrin); Mexico, West Indies, 1400-2000 m
                                            H. croceopustulata (Kurok.) Hale
28b   Pustules not sorediate; medulla P-                                  29

29a   Pustules with a hard, glossy surface, fragile (like large isidia); 
      rhizines densely branched (atranorin, colensoic, norcolensoinic, 4-0-
      methylphysodic, physodic, lividic acids, associates, skyrin if 
      pigmented); widespread at 1000-2800 m      H. dactylifera (Vain.) Hale
29b   Pustules with easily eroding cortex, but not easily shed; rhizines 
      moderately branched to partly simple (atranorin, lividic acid, 
      associates, skyrin if pigmented); neotropical? (Africa, North America, 
      at 1900-2400 m)                  H. polydactyla (Krog & Swinscow) Nash



51a (1) Thallus yellowish green (usnic acid present in cortex, sometimes 
      with traces of atranorin)                                           52
51b   Thallus whitish to ashy grey                                        56

52a   Medulla K+ yellow turning red                                       53
52b   Medulla K- or pale yellowish                                        54

53a   Isidia distinctly lobulate (norstictic and salazinic, or norstictic, 
      stictic and constictic acids); Central America, northern Andes 
      southward to Peru, at 2800-3700 m                     H. andensis Hale
53b   Isidia remaining cylindrical (norstictic, galbinic and salazinic 
      acids); widespread at 900-3100 m           H. microblasta (Vain.) Hale

54a   Medulla P+ orange to red                                            55
54b   Medulla P- (divaricatic acid, C-, KC-); Goias (Brazil), on sandstone 
      at 700-900 m                         H. divaricatica Elix & T. H. Nash

55a   Medulla with physodalic acid; southern Chile, Colombian Andes
                                               H. subphysodalica (Hale) Hale
55b   Medulla with protocetraric acid; Venezuela, on rock at 3200 m   
                                               H. neoflavida Hale & López F.

56a (51) Medulla uniformly yellow (barbatic and obtusatic acid, entothein, 
      indet. pigments, rarely echinocarpic or norobtusatic acids); 
      widespread at 1000-3000 m (when lobulate without cylindrical isidia, 
      see H. chlorina)                             H. isidiocera (Nyl.) Hale
56b   Medulla white                                                       57

57a   Isidia mostly laminal on the lobe surface                           58
57b   Isidia marginal at lobe tips, more or less lobulate; 
      medulla C+ red (anziaic acid); Central America, Mexico, West Indies, 
      northern Andes southward to Peru, at 2000-2500 m
                  H. prolongata (Kurok.) Hale (syn. H. rachista (Hale) Hale)

58a   Medulla K+ yellow turning red (norstictic, rarely with a trace of 
      stictic acid); Panama and Peru, at 1300-2300 m
                                               H. rhabdiformis (Kurok.) Hale
58b   Medulla K- or slowly pale yellowish                                 59

59a   Medulla C+ or at least KC+ yellow-orange (barbatic acid group)      60
59b   Medulla C+ rose or red or C-                                        62

60a   Lobes narrow and appressed, 1-2 mm wide; isidia ciliate; Amazonas
      (Venezuela), at 1300 m                     H. steyermarkii (Hale) Hale
60b   Lobes 2-5 mm wide; isidia eciliate                                  61

61a   Medulla P- (no echinocarpic acid); widespread at 200-2600 m
                                               H. imbricatula (Zahlbr.) Hale
61b   Medulla P+ red (echinocarpic acid); Mexico, Venezuela, southern Brazil,
      on rock at c. 1000 m                H. dentella (Hale & Kurokawa) Hale

62a   Medulla C+ rose or red (anziaic or gyrophoric acids)                63
62b   Medulla C-                                                          67

63a   Isidia cylindrical, erect                                           64
63b   Isidia not cylindrical                                              65

64a   Medulla with gyrophoric acid; Venezuela (Africa, 
      India), epiphytic at 2000-2200 m            H. neodissecta (Hale) Hale
64b   Medulla with evernic and lecanoric acids; widespread, at 1800-4100 m
                                                 H. bogotensis (Vainio) Hale

65a   Isidia becoming lobulate, procumbent                                66
65b   Isidia club-shaped, crumbling apically (gyrophoric acid); Uruguay, 
      under 1000 m                                    H. osorioi (Hale) Hale

66a   Medulla with anziaic or (rarely) perlatolic acid; Central America,
      Venezuela, Colombia, at 2200-3600 m                    H. partita Hale
66b   Medulla with evernic and lecanoric acids; widespread, at 1800-4100 m
                                                 H. bogotensis (Vainio) Hale

67a   Medulla P+ red (protocetraric acid)                                 68
67b   Medulla P-                                                          69

68a   Lobes sublinear, 1-3 mm wide (protocetraric acid, skyrin if 
      pigmented); Mexico, West Indies, Venezuela, southern Brazil, at 800-
      1600 m                                      H. consimilis (Vain.) Hale
68b   Lobes subirregular, 3-7 mm wide (protocetraric acid and fatty acid); 
      Mexico, 2100 m                               H. koyaensis (Asah.) Hale

69a   Medulla KC-, UV- (protolichesterinic, ?caperatic acids); widespread, 
      at 1000-3500 m                            H. costaricensis (Nyl.) Hale
69b   Medulla KC+ rose to red, UV+ white (alectoronic acid, usually with 
      a-collatolic acid)                                                  70

70a   Isidia cylindrical, erect; Venezuela, on rock at c. 2000 m
                                               H. meridensis Hale & López F.
70b   Isidia becoming lobulate, procumbent; Central America, northern Andes
      southward to Colombia, West Indies, at 2000-3700 m
                                                  H. ensifolia (Kurok.) Hale



101a (1) Thallus greenish yellow (usnic acid dominant in cortex)         102
101b  Thallus whitish to ashy grey                                       111

102a  Lobes long and little branched, divaricate (internodia often much 
      longer than lobe width); thallus loosely attached                  103
102b  Lobes shorter (internodia usually not longer than twice the lobe 
      width), moderately branched; thallus generally adnate              105

103a  Medulla K- (physodalic and/or protocetraric acid); northern Andes 
      from Peru to Venezuela, at 3700-4100 m      H. physodalica (Hale) Hale
103b  Medulla K+ yellow turning red                                      104

104a  Stictic acid present; Venezuela, Colombia, at 2800-3900 m
                                                             H. lopezii Hale
104b  Salazinic acid present (usually with norstictic and galbinic acids); 
      Central America, northern Andes southward to Bolivia, south-eastern 
      Brazil, at 1500-4200 m                     H. caraccensis (Tayl.) Hale

105a  Medulla K+ yellow turning red                                      106
105b  Medulla K- or K+ very pale yellow                                  107

106a  Thallus corticolous (norstictic, salazinic acids); Panama, Colombia, 
      Peru, at 2800-3500 m                           H. reducens (Nyl.) Hale
106b  Thallus saxicolous (norstictic, galbinic and salazinic acids); 
      Central America, northern Andes southward to Bolivia, south-eastern 
      Brazil, at 2200-3700 m                  H. enderythraea (Zahlbr.) Hale

107a  Medulla C+ yellow-orange or red; saxicolous or corticolous         108
107b  Medulla C-; saxicolous                                             109

108a  Thallus corticolous; medulla C+ yellow-orange (barbatic acid group);
      Costa Rica, at 3200 m                    H. protoboliviana (Hale) Hale
108b  Thallus saxicolous; medulla C+ red (evernic and lecanoric acids); 
      Venezuela, above 2000 m                   H. cendensis Hale & López F.

109a  Medulla P+ red (protocetraric acid); Guiana Highlands, northern Andes 
      southward to Peru, south-eastern Brazil, on rock or rarely on soil, at 
      1200-4100 m                                  H. flavida (Zahlbr.) Hale
109b  Medulla P-                                                         110

110a  Medulla UV+ white (alectoronic and a-collatolic acid); Goias 
      (Brazil), on sandstone or moss at c. 800 m
                                                H. goiasii Elix & T. H. Nash
110b  Medulla UV- (hypoalectorialic acid); southern Brazil, on rock at 1500 
      m                               H. hypoalectorialica Elix & T. H. Nash

111a (101) All or most of the medulla pigmented yellow or red            112
111b  Medulla white throughout                                           116

112a  Thallus saxicolous                                                 113
112b  Thallus corticolous                                                114

113a  Medulla C+ deep red (lichexanthone, olivetoric acid, skyrin); 
      northern Andes (Venezuela, Colombia), on rock at 2300-3000 m
                                                   H. osteoleuca (Nyl.) Hale
113b  Medulla C- (lichexanthone, 4-0-methylphysodic and physodic acids, 
      skyrin, with or without colensoic and lividic acids and associates); 
      Venezuela, Peru, Brazil, on rock, at 1600-3500 m (if medulla pale 
      yellow, P+ red, see H. primitiva)         H. erythrodes (Zahlbr.) Hale

114a  Margins of lobes densely lobulate (barbatic acid group, entothein, 
      indet. pigments); widespread, at 900-2500 m
                                               H. chlorina (Müll. Arg.) Hale
114b  Margins of lobes sparsely lobulate or lacking lobules              115

115a  Pigment pale yellow, throughout the medulla (barbatic acid group, 
      entothein); Costa Rica, Panama, Venezuela, at 2200-3600 m
                                                    H. peruviana (Nyl.) Hale
115b  Pigment red, occurring in the lower half of the medulla 
      (lichexanthone, protocetraric acid, indet. anthraquinone); southern 
      Brazil                                       H. silvatica (Lynge) Hale

116a (111) Lobes long and little branched (internodia often much longer than 
      lobe width); thallus loosely attached                              117
116b  Lobes shorter and moderately branched (internodia usually not longer 
      twice the lobe width); thallus adnate                              121

117a  Medulla C+ or at least KC+ yellow-orange (barbatic acid group); 
      Venezuela, Colombia, at 2800-3400 m        H. monilifera (Kurok.) Hale
117b  Medulla C+ rose or red or C-                                       118

118a  Medulla C+ deep red (anziaic acid); Venezuela, Peru, at 3000-3800 m
                                     H. ducalis sensu Hale, non (Jatta) Hale
      Note. According to Krog & Swinscow (1979) the syntypes of Parmelia 
      ducalis Jatta contain barbatic and 4-0-demethylbarbatic acid and are 
      conspecific with P. subplumbeata Dodge.
118b  Medulla C+ rose or C-                                              119

119a  Medulla KC+ red, UV+ white (alectoronic acid)                      120
119b  Medulla KC-, UV-; thallus large, usually more than 8 cm broad; lobes 
      linear, subdivaricate, 1-3 mm wide, flat to convex (secalonic acid A, 
      unknowns, often traces of usnic, lobaric and gyrophoric acids); 
      Venezuela, above 3000 m               H. paramense W. Culb. & C. Culb.

120a  Thallus small, 3-6 cm broad (alectoronic acid alone); Dominican 
      Republic, at 2400-2800 m                  H. lineariloba (Kurok.) Hale
120b  Thallus larger, more than 8 cm broad (alectoronic, a-collatolic and 
      sometimes gyrophoric acids); Mexico, Panama, northern Andes southward 
      to Bolivia, at 2600-3900 m
                   H. longiloba (H. Magn.) Hale (syn. H. gigas (Kurok.) Hale

121a (116) Thallus UV+ yellow (lichexanthone in cortex, sometimes with 
      atranorin)                                                         122
121b  Thallus UV- (atranorin only in the cortex)                         127

122a  Lower part of medulla pigmented orange (skyrin)                    123
122b  Medulla white throughout                                           124
123b  Medulla P+ red, C- (fumarprotocetraric acid); south-eastern Brazil, on 
      sandstone rock at c. 1000 m.                    H. minima (Lynge) Hale
123a  Medulla P-, C+ red (olivetoric acid, indet. substances); Colombia, 
      Venezuela, on rock at 2300-3000 m            H. osteoleuca (Nyl.) Hale

124a  Medulla P+ red (fumarprotocetraric acid); southeastern Brazil, on rock 
      at 1000-2300 m                               H. brasiliana (Nyl.) Hale
124b  Medulla P-                                                         125

125a  Medulla C+ deep red (lichexanthone, anziaic acid); thallus loosely 
      attached; southeastern Brazil, saxicolous at c. 1800 m
                                                      H. eitenii (Hale) Hale
125b  Medulla C-; thallus closely adnate                                 126

126a  Saxicolous, not darkening toward the center; rhizines sparsely 
      branched; medulla white or turning dull salmon (4-0-methylphysodic and 
      physodic acids, skyrin, with or without colensoic and lividic acids 
      and associates); Venezuela, Peru, Brazil, on rock at 1600-3500 m
                                                H. erythrodes (Zahlbr.) Hale
126b  Corticolous, darkening toward the center; rhizines densely branched; 
      medulla white (colensoic, norcolensoinic, 4-0-methylphysodic and 
      physodic acids, lividic acid and associates); Venezuela and southern 
      Brazil, corticolous at 1000-2000 m             H. novella (Vain.) Hale

127a (121) Medulla K+ yellow turning red (salazinic acid)                128
127b  Medulla K- or pale yellowish                                       130

128a  Saxicolous or on soil (salazinic acid alone); rhizines sparsely 
      branched; Mexico, at c. 2200 m   H. subsaxatilis (Bouly de Lesd.) Hale
128b  Corticolous                                                        129

129a  Norstictic acid present (skyrin sometimes present, norstictic acid 
      sometimes absent?); thallus 3-8 cm broad, often whitish pruinose; 
      Mexico, Panama, Chile, at 1500-2100 m      H. sublaevigata (Nyl.) Hale
129b  Norstictic acid absent (salazinic acid alone); thallus 8-12 cm broad, 
      not pruinose; Panama, at c. 1500 m          H. boquetensis (Hale) Hale

130a (127) Medulla C+ yellow-orange, red or rose                         131
130b  Medulla C-                                                         136

131a  Medulla C+ yellow-orange (barbatic acid group)                     132
131b  Medulla C+ red or rose                                             134

132a  Apothecia strongly stalked; medulla often very pale yellow (entothein
      present); Costa Rica, Panama, Venezuela, at 2200-3600 m  
                                                    H. peruviana (Nyl.) Hale
132b  Apothecia adnate; medulla white (entothein absent)                 133

133a  Maculae absent to weakly developed; widespread, at 1500-4100 m
                                                  H. physcioides (Nyl.) Hale
133b  Maculae strongly developed; Mexico, at c. 3800 m
                                            H. cf. subplumbeata (Dodge) Hale
      Note. According to Krog & Swinscow (1979) Parmelia subplumbeata is a
      synonym of H. ducalis (Jatta) Hale, a species with a weakly maculate
      surface and a fragile, often flaking cortex.

134a  Lobes subirregular, broadly canaliculate; lower side with broad brown 
      zone along the margins; C+ rose (gyrophoric acid); Mexico, southern 
      Brazil to Argentina, at 1000-2300 m         H. pluriformis (Nyl.) Hale
134b  Lobes sublinear, not canaliculate                                  135

135a  Maculae usually conspicuous (evernic and lecanoric acids); Mexico, 
      Central America, Jamaica, northern Andes southward to Bolivia, south-
      eastern Brazil, at 1200-4300 m                 H. pulvinata (Fée) Hale
135b  Maculae absent (olivetoric acid); south-eastern Brazil and Argentina, 
      500-1200 m                                H. intercalanda (Vain.) Hale
135c  Maculae absent (evernic, lecanoric, obtusatic, norobtusatic acids); 
      Costa Rica, Venezuela, Peru, on rock, mosses and soil at 3300-3600 m
                                                     H. chicitae (Hale) Hale

136a (130) Medulla P+ red (protocetraric acid)                           137
136b  Medulla P-                                                         140

137a  Thallus loosely applanate                                          138
137b  Thallus closely attached to the rock face; medulla with protocetraric 
      acid                                                               139

138a  Saxicolous, often growing over mosses on rock; medulla with 
      fumarprotocetraric acid (and sometimes with unknown pale yellow 
      pigment); Venezuela and Colombia, on rock or soil above 3000 m
                                                H. primitiva Hale & López F.
138b  Corticolous; medulla with protocetraric acid, and skyrin if 
      pigmented; West Indies, southern Brazil, corticolous at 1000-2000 m
                                                      H. bahiana (Nyl.) Hale

139a  Thallus dark grey; lobes about 1 mm wide, short; Venezuela, southern 
      Brazil, on rock at 1500-3500 m              H. obscurella (Vain.) Hale
139b  Thallus whitish grey; lobes 2-4 mm wide; south-eastern Brazil, on 
      sandstone rock at c. 1000 m                 H. contradicta (Hale) Hale

140a (136) Lobe margins distinctly lobulate (indet. fatty substance); 
      thallus rather coriaceous; Peru, at 3100 m   H. singularis (Hale) Hale
140b  Lobe margins without lobules                                       141

141a  Medulla UV+ white, KC+ red (alectoronic and a-collatolic acid)     142
141b  Medulla UV-, KC- or KC+ red (if KC+ yellow-orange, see 132)        143

142a  Corticolous, rarely saxicolous; thallus rather closely adnate and 
      coriaceous; lobes 1-2.5 mm wide; Colombia, Venezuela, Peru, southern 
      Brazil, at 1000-3500 m                          H. degelii (Hale) Hale
142b  Saxicolous and on soil; thallus rather loosely adnate and colonies 
      breaking easily apart; lobes 2-4 mm wide (additionally skyrin if 
      pigmented); Central America, northern Andes southward to Peru, 
      southern Brazil, at 1700-4100 m                       H. protenta Hale

143a  Lividic acid present (atranorin, colensoic, norcolensoinic, 4-0-
      methylphysodic and physodic acids, lividic acid and associates); 
      Bahamas, Venezuela, south-eastern Brazil to Argentina, at 500-2800 m
                                                      H. livida (Tayl.) Hale
143b  "palmarum unknown" present (atranorin, colensoic acid, unknowns; P-, 
      K-, C-, KC+ rose); south-eastern Brazil, epiphytic at 600-1500 m
                                                    H. palmarum (Lynge) Hale
143c  "gracilescens unknown" present (P-, K-, C-, KC-); southeastern 
      Brazil, on rock at 1400-1500 m           H. gracilescens (Vainio) Hale


Literature:
Hale, M. E. 1975. A revision of the lichen genus Hypotrachyna (Parmeliaceae) in Tropical America. Smithsonian Contrib. Bot. 25, 73 pages.
Krog, H. & Swinscow, T. D. V. 1979. Parmelia subgenus Hypotrachyna in East Africa. Norw. J. Bot. 26: 11-43.


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