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Lichen determination keys
- tropical, corticolous Buellia -
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Artificial key to Marbach's tropical Buellia s.l. with short diagnoses

(corticolous; grey, 2-celled spores; no algae in margin)
compiled from Marbach (2000) (for species with pluricellular spores see Nordin 2000)
by H. Sipman, 28 November 2003, minor corrections and additions 2 Dec. 2011; DIRECTIONS FOR USE

1a Vegetative propagules (isidia, soralia) present --- 2
1b Vegetative propagules absent; thallus usually smooth, sometimes granular to pustular --- 11

2a Isidia present --- 3
2b Soredia present --- 6

3a Isidia cylindrical to coralloid, on smooth thallus; thallus K+ yellow to red (norstictic acid present) --- 4
3b Isidia granular to coralloid, on granular thallus; thallus K- or + yellowish (norstictic acid absent) --- 5

4a Apothecia not pruinose --- Cratiria dissimilis (Nyl.) Marbach
(THALLUS white to pale grey or yellowish, smooth, many simple to coralloid isidia, black or grey prothallus, with atranorin and norstictic acid, K+ yellow->red, UV-. APOTHECIA 0.4-0.8 mm diam., sessile; disc flat, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum (50-)80 mu thick, dark brown with paler, below open, central layer, K+ red needles, hypothecium dark brown; hymenium 100-120 mu, not inspersed; epithecium olive-brown. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, (13-)15-17(-20) x (4.5-)6-7(-8) mu, 1-septate, thin septa, apically thickened walls, moderately sculptured. Pycnospores bacillar, 4.5-5.5 x 0.8 mu, slightly stalked. SE Asia, India, New Caledonia, Pacific. coastal on Cocos.
4b Apothecia white-pruinose --- Cratiria exalbida (Kremp.) Marbach
(THALLUS ochraceous-white, smooth, with simple to coralloid isidia, no prothallus?, with atranorin and norstictic acid, K+ yellow->red, UV-. APOTHECIA to 0.4 mm diam., sessile; disc flat, thalluscolour-pruinose; margin non/pruinose?; excipulum ca. 80 mu thick, dark brown with paler, below open, central layer, K+ red BUT no needles, hypothecium dark brown; hymenium ca. 100 mu, not inspersed; epithecium grey or golden grey. Paraphyse tips ca. 2.5 mu wide, hyaline. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, 15-17 x 6-7 mu, 1-septate, thin septa, slightly apically thickened walls, finely to moderately sculptured. Pycnospores unknown. Borneo (known from type only).

5a Thallus UV+ yellow (lichexanthone present); apothecia not pruinose --- Gassicurtia catasema (Tuck.) Marbach
(THALLUS white, grey, ochraceous, granular or isidioid-granular, granules ca. 80-150 mu diam., black or no prothallus, with barbatic and obtusatic acids and lichexanthone, K+ yellow, UV+ yellow. APOTHECIA 0.3-0.5(-0.6) mm diam., sessile; disc flat, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum 25-35 mu thick, carbonaceous, K+ yellow, orange sol., hypothecium carbonaceous; hymenium (50-)60-70 mu, not inspersed, pale yellow, K+ more yellow; epithecium olive, olive-brown, without epipsamma. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, (9-)11-13 x 4.5-5.5(-6) mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, moderately sculptured. Pycnospores clavate, 8-10 x 0.8-1.0 mu. Neotropics, Africa, Hawaii, 0-1450 m.
5b Thallus UV- (lichexanthone absent); apothecia red- or orange-pruinose --- Gassicurtia elizae (Tuck.) Marbach
(THALLUS yellowish grey, granular or coralloid-isidiate, black prothallus, with barbatic and obtusatic acids, K-, UV-. APOTHECIA 0.3-0.4 mm diam., sessile; disc flat or convex, brick-red, orange-pruinose UV+ red; margin non/pruinose?; excipulum 30-50 mu thick, K-, ectal carbonaceous, med. paler, hypothecium carbonaceous; hymenium 60-70 mu, not inspersed; epithecium thick orange,, dissolving in K. Paraphyse tips 2-2.5 mu thick, hyaline. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, (10-)11-13(-15) x 5-6(-7) mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, coarsely sculptured. Pycnospores unknown. Wide-pantropical, 500-2000 m.

6a (2) Rounded soralia present, sometimes numerous and confluent --- 7
6b Rounded soralia absent, soredia diffuse or largely covering the thallus --- 8

7a Thallus containing lobaric acid and 4,5-dichlorolichexanthone (K-) --- Amandinea efflorescens (Müll.Arg.) Marbach
(THALLUS grey to greenish, smooth, with rounded soralia sometimes confluent, no prothallus, with lobaric acid and 4,5-dichlorolichexanthone, K- or +pale yellow, UV+ orange, soralia UV+ bluish. APOTHECIA 0.3-0.4 mm diam., sessile to immersed; disc flat to convex, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum 10-20 mu thick, ectal dark brown, med. pale brown, hypothecium brown; hymenium 60-70 mu, not inspersed; epithecium dark brown. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, (10-)12-14(-15) x (4.5-)5-6(-6.5) mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, rather coarsely sculptured. Pycnospores filiform, 12-18(-23) x 0.5-0.7 mu. Pantropical.
7b Thallus containing arthothelin and thuringion (K-) --- Amandinea efflorescens var. pseudohypopelidna Marbach
(THALLUS yellow-green, smooth/warted/areolate, with rounded soralia sometimes confluent, no prothallus, with arthothelin and thuringione, K+ yellow, UV+ orange, soralia UV+ bluish. APOTHECIA 0.3-0.4 mm diam., sessile to immersed; disc flat to convex, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum 10-20 mu thick, ectal dark brown, med. pale brown, hypothecium brown; hymenium 60-70 mu, not inspersed; epithecium dark brown. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, (10-)11-13(-15) x (4.5-)5-6(-6.5) mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, rather coarsely sculptured. Pycnospores unknown. New Caledonia (known from type only).
7c Thallus containing norstictic acid and atranorin (K+ yellow turning red) --- Stigmatochroma sorediata Marbach & V. Wirth
(THALLUS whitish, smooth, with rounded soralia 0.2-0.4 mm diam. with farinose soredia, with or without black prothallus, with norstictic acid and atranorin, K+ yellow turning red, UV-. APOTHECIA to 1.0(-1.2) mm diam., sessile; disc flat, grey-pruinose; margin grey-pruinose?; excipulum 70-90 mu thick, ectal dark brown, med. pale brown, hypothecium brown; hymenium 90-100 mu, not inspersed; epithecium golden to golden-grey. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, (12-)13-16(-18) x 5.5-6.5 mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, weakly or moderately sculptured. Pycnospores unknown. Society Islands, 5 m (known from type only).

8a Thallus largely covered by yellow soralia; known only from Florida --- Ciposia wheeleri (R.C. Harris) Marbach
(THALLUS white, smooth/warted/areolate?, largely covered by yellow soralia, no prothallus, with indet. pigment, K-?, UV+ orange. APOTHECIA to 0.3 mm diam., sessile; disc convex?, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum 50-60 mu thick, ectal dark brown or carbonaceous, med. 40 mu yellowish, pigment dissolving in K, hypothecium dark brown or carbonaceous; hymenium ca. 100 mu, not/inspersed; epithecium dark brown, K-. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, (14-)15-17(-19) x 7.5-10 mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, very coarsely sculptured. Pycnospores unknown. Florida.
8b Thallus with diffuse soredia on spots not differing in colour from the rest of the thallus; neotropical or pantropical --- 9

9a Ascospores with thin septa and wall; hymenium clear --- Chrismofulvea omalia Marbach
(THALLUS ochraceous grey, furfuraceous, diffusely sorediate, no prothallus, with fumarprotocetraric acid, K+ dark yellow, UV-. APOTHECIA to 0.3 mm diam., sessile; disc flat to strongly convex, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum ca. 25 mu thick, brown, K-, hypothecium pale- or dark brown; hymenium ca. 80 mu, not inspersed; epithecium brown. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, (20-)21-23(-24) x 8-9 mu, 1-septate, thin or juv. thick septa, thin walls, smooth. Pycnospores unknown. Costa Rica, ca. 2600 m.
9b Ascospores with incompletely or completely thickened septa and walls (Mischoblastia or Pachysporaria-type); hymenium densely inspersed with oil droplets --- 10

10a Ascospores with funnel-shaped lumina (Mischoblastia-type) --- Sculptolumina japonica (Tuck.) Marbach
(THALLUS olive-brown to dark grey, furfuraceous or small-squamulose, continuous, often diffusely sorediate, no prothallus, with indet. pigments, K- or +yellowish, UV- or spot wise (sorediate spots) + blue-violet. APOTHECIA (0.3-)0.4-0.5(-0.6) mm diam., sessile or moderately immersed; disc flat to strongly convex, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum 25-30 mu thick, carbonaceous, K-, hypothecium carbonaceous; hymenium 70-110 mu, inspersed; epithecium dark- olive-, red-brown. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, (17-)19-23(-13) mu, 1-septate, 8 mu thick septa, apically strongly thickened walls (mischoblastioid), moderately sculptured. Pycnospores unknown. Pantropical, 450-2400 m.
10b Ascospores with rounded lumina (Pachysporaria-type) --- Sculptolumina serotina (Malme) Marbach
(THALLUS white, grey, ochraceous, olive-brown, smooth to furfuraceous, often diffusely sorediate, no or dark grey prothallus, with indet. pigments and often lobaric acid, K-, UV-. APOTHECIA 0.3-0.4 mm diam., sessile; disc flat to strongly convex, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum 20-40 mu thick, carbonaceous, K-, hypothecium carbonaceous; hymenium 90-110 mu, inspersed; epithecium dark-, olive-, red-brown. ASCOSPORES (4, 6, )8/ascus, (16-)18-22(-27) x (8-)9-12(-14) mu, 1-septate, ca. 6 mu thick septa, equally strongly thickened walls (Pachysporaria-like), smooth. Pycnospores unknown. Neotropical, 100-1450 m.

11a (1) Apothecia not purely black, more or less covered with a thin, more or less pruina-like, whitish, greyish, reddish or otherwise coloured layer (look at young apothecia!) --- 12
11b Apothecia purely black, rarely disc slightly reddish or very dark brown --- 47

12a Apothecium disc with pale grey to white pruina resembling the thallus colour --- 13
12b Apothecium disc with yellow, orange, reddish or brownish pruina --- 32

13a Hymenium completely and densely inspersed with oil droplets --- 14
13b Hymenium clear (or with scarce oil droplets) --- 18

14a Ascospores with thick septa, thick subapical walls and thin apical walls --- Hafellia pruinosa Marbach & Kalb
(THALLUS ochraceous grey to grey, moderately warted, continuous to strongly fissured, NIS, black prothallus, with atranorin and norstictic acid, K+ yellow->red, UV-. APOTHECIA 0.6-0.7 mm diam., sessile; disc flat, weakly grey- to white-pruinose; margin non/pruinose?; excipulum ca. 45 mu thick, carbonaceous, K-, hypothecium dark brown or carbonaceous; hymenium 80-100 mu, inspersed; epithecium golden or golden-grey with granular epipsamma K+ yellow. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, 17-22 x 7-10 mu, 1-septate, ca. 5 mu thick septa, slightly subapically thickened walls, finely to moderately sculptured. Pycnospores unknown. Neotropics, 550-1950 m.
14b Ascospores with thin septa, thin subapical walls and thick apical walls --- 15

15a Thallus whitish, with norstictic acid as dominant substance, K+ yellow->red, UV-; thallus mounts in K producing red needle-shaped crystals --- Cratiria saltensis (H. Magn.) Marbach
(THALLUS ochraceous white, slightly warted, slightly to strongly fissured, NIS, black prothallus, with atranorin and norstictic acid, K+ yellow->red, UV-. APOTHECIA to 0.5 mm diam., sessile; disc flat or concave, thalluscolour-pruinose or non-pruinose; margin non/pruinose?; excipulum ca. 70 mu thick, carbonaceous, with paler, yellow-pigmented, below closed, central layer, K+ orange (NO needles), hypothecium carbonaceous; hymenium ca. 120 mu, inspersed; epithecium olive-golden. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, (15-)16-18(-19) x 7.5-9 mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin or apically slightly thickened walls, coarsely sculptured. Pycnospores bacillar, 4.5-5.5 x 1.1 mu, indistinctly stalked. South America, 250-1500 m.
15b Thallus yellowish, with xanthones as dominant substances, K- or K+ yellow, UV+ orange; thallus mounts in K not producing such crystals --- 16

16a Apothecium discs UV+ orange --- Cratiria chloraceus Marbach
(THALLUS yellow, slightly warted, strongly fissured, NIS, black prothallus, with arthothelin, 6-O-methylarthothelin and tr. norstictic acid, K+ yellow, UV+ orange. APOTHECIA to 0.8(-1.0) mm diam., sessile; disc flat or convex, thalluscolour(UV+ orange)-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum 50-60 mu thick, carbonaceous with paler, yellow-pigmented, below closed central layer, hypothecium dark brown or carbonaceous; hymenium 80-100 mu, inspersed; epithecium golden grey with granular epithecium dissolving in K. Paraphyse tips 2.5-3 mu wide ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, (14-)15-17(-20) x 6-8 mu, 1-septate, to 4 mu thick septa, apically thickened walls, moderately sculptured. Pycnospores unknown. New Caledonia.
16b Apothecium discs UV- --- 17

17a Excipulum K+ yellow-orange dissolving, sometimes with red needles --- Cratiria aggrediens (Stirton) Marbach
(THALLUS yellowish white to -grey, moderately warted, continuous to strongly fissured, NIS, black prothallus, with thuringione, arthothelin and tr. norstictic acid, K- or + yellow, UV+ orange. APOTHECIA 0.8-1.0(-1.2) mm diam., sessile; disc concave or flat, thallus-colour-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum 70-110 mu thick, carbonaceous with yellow-pigmented pale, below closed, central layer, K+ yellow, few red needles, hypothecium carbonaceous; hymenium (80-)100-130 mu, inspersed; epithecium golden grey with granular epipsamma dissolving in K; paraphyse tips 2.5-3 mm wide. ASCOSPORES (4, 6, )8/ascus, (17-)21-24(-28) x (8-)9-11(-13) mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, juv. with thickened apices, coarsely sculptured. Pycnospores bacillar, sometimes with one attenuated end, 4-5 x 1-1.2 mu. Pantropical, 500-2300 m.
17b Excipulum K- --- Cratiria melanochlora (Kremp.) Marbach
(THALLUS ochraceous yellow, moderately to strongly warted or subgranular, continuous to areolate, NIS, black or dark grey prothallus, thick cortex with hyaline top layer, with thuringione, arthothelin and tr. norstictic acid, K+ yellow, UV+ orange. APOTHECIA 0.8-1.0(-1.3) mm diam., sessile; disc concave or flat, old convex, thalluscolour-pruinose; margin non/pruinose?; excipulum 60-100 mu thick, carbonaceous throughout, K-, hypothecium carbonaceous; hymenium (80-)90-120 mu, inspersed; epithecium golden orange to -brown with granular epipsamma dissolving in K. Paraphyse tips 2.5-3 mu thick, not pigmented or with narrow brown cap. ASCOSPORES (4, 6, )8/ascus, (16-)19-21(-23) x (7-)8-10(-11) mu, 1-septate, sometimes slightly pointed, thin septa, thin or apically slightly thickened walls, coarsely sculptured. Pycnospores bacillar, 3-4 x 0.9-1.1 mu. Brazil, Hawaii, New Guinea, 0-700 m.

18a (13) Thallus K+ red or yellow soon turning into red (norstictic acid present); thallus mounts in K producing red needle-shaped crystals --- 19
18b Thallus K- or K+ yellow (norstictic acid absent); thallus mounts in K not producing such crystals --- 29

19a Thallus yellowish, containing xanthones, mostly UV+ orange --- 20
19b Thallus whitish, without xanthones, UV-, turning ochraceous in the herbarium --- 21

20a Ascospores ca. 13-15 mu long --- Stigmatochroma gerontoides (Stirton) Marbach
(THALLUS grey, ochraceous to yellow, slightly to moderately warted, continuous to strongly fissured, NIS, black or no prothallus, with norstictic and thiophaninic acids and other xanthones in variable amounts, K+ yellow->red, UV+ orange or UV-. APOTHECIA 0.4-0.7(-1.0) mm diam., sessile; disc flat to slightly convex, grey-, ochraceous- or yellow-pruinose, UV+ yellow (lichexanthone), orange (other xanthones); margin non/pruinose?; excipulum 30-50 mu thick, dark brown or carbonaceous, K+ red needles, hypothecium dark brown or carbonaceous; hymenium 70-100 mu, not-inspersed; epithecium grey or golden grey, with granular epipsamma dissolving in K. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, (12-)13-15(-16) x 5-6(-6.5) mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, smooth or finely sculptured. Pycnospores unknown. Neotropical, 0-700 m.
20b Ascospores ca. 18-21 mu long --- Stigmatochroma metaleptoides (Nyl.) Marbach
(THALLUS ochraceous to yellow-grey, yellow-white or yellow, slightly to moderately warted, continuous, NIS, black prothallus, with norstictic and thiophaninic acids and other xanthones, K+ red, UV+ pink, orange or red, APOTHECIA 0.4 mm diam., sessile; disc concave, white- or yellow-pruinose, UV+ orange or red; margin non/pruinose?; excipulum ca. 70 mu thick, carbonaceous with paler, red-brown, below open, central zone, K+ yellow or purplish, often with red needles, hypothecium dark brown with yellow pigments, K+ purplish; hymenium ca. 80 mu, not inspersed; epithecium golden grey, grey, with granular epipsamma dissolving in K. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, (16-)18-21 x 6.5-9 mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, finely sculptured. Pycnospores unknown. Pantropical, 1000-2100 m.

21a Ascospores with ca. 3-7 mu thick septa --- 22
21b Ascospores with thin septa --- 24

22a Ascospores ca 14-16 mu long; apothecia with prominent, undulating margin --- Fluctua megapotamica (Malme in J. Steiner) Marbach
(THALLUS ochraceous to grey or greenish grey, pale grey, slightly warted, continuous or slightly fissured, NIS, black or grey prothallus, with norstictic acid, K+ yellow->red, UV-. APOTHECIA 0.5-1.0 mm diam., sessile; disc flat, thalluscolour-pruinose; margin non/pruinose?, prominent and becoming undulate; excipulum 25-50 mu thick, carbonaceous, continuous with hypothecium or med. slightly paler, hypothecium carbonaceous; hymenium 70-80 mu, not inspersed; epithecium brown-grey, olive-grey or golden grey. ASCOSPORES (4, 6, )8/ascus, (11-)14-16(-19) x (6-)7-8(-9) mu, 1-septate, ca. 4 mu thick septa, thin or slightly subapically thickened walls, finely sculptured. Pycnospores filiform, 13-23 x 0.7-0.9 mu. Brazil-Uruguay, 0-50 m.
22b Ascospores mostly more than 18 mu long; apothecium margin not undulating --- 23

23a Spore septa ca. 6 mu thick --- Baculifera imshaugiana (R.C. Harris) Marbach
(THALLUS white-grey, smooth to slightly warted, continuous to strongly fissured, NIS, black to grey prothallus, with atranorin and norstictic acid, K+ red, UV-. APOTHECIA to 0.8 mm diam., sessile; disc flat, non-pruinose or with weak pruina of thallus colour; margin non-pruinose; excipulum 45-60 mu thick, pale- to dark brown, K+ red needles, hypothecium carbonaceous; hymenium ca. 100 mu, not inspersed; epithecium brown or golden brown, sometimes with granular epithecium K+ dissolving. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, 18-21(-22) x 7-9 mu, 1-septate, more or less thick septa to 1/3 of spore length, slightly subapically thickened walls, coarsely sculptured. Pycnospores bacillar, 8-10 x 1.0-1.1 mu. Mexico to Florida.
23b Spore septa ca. 3 mu thick --- Baculifera orosa Marbach & Kalb
(THALLUS ochraceous (to grey), slightly to moderately warted, slightly fissured to areolate, NIS, black to dark grey prothallus, with atranorin and norstictic acid, K+ yellow->red, UV-. APOTHECIA 0.7-1.0(-1.5) mm diam., sessile; disc flat to concave, not or slightly thalluscolour-pruinose; margin non/pruinose as disc; excipulum 60-70(-90) mu thick, K+ yellow needles, ectal carbonaceous, med. dark- to red-brown, hypothecium dark brown or carbonaceous; hymenium 90-120(-140) mu, not inspersed; epithecium olive-, dark- or red-brown, K-. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, (17-)20-24(-28) x (7.5-)8-9(-12) mu, 1-septate, weakly thickened (ca. 3 mu) septa, slightly subapically thickened walls, coarsely sculptured. Pycnospores bacillar, 8-11 x 1.0-1.1 mu. Central America-Mexico, 1950-2350 m.

24a (21) Epithecium with granular epithecium dissolving in K --- 25
24b Epithecium without granular epithecium --- 28

25a Excipulum with hyaline outer layer --- Baculifera tobleri (Zahlbr. in R. Riehmer) Marbach
(THALLUS pale orange to reddish ochraceous, fine-squamulose to crustaceous-areolate, NIS, black or no prothallus, with norstictic acid, K+ yellow->red, UV-. APOTHECIA 0.4-0.7 mm diam., sessile, often slightly undulate; disc flat to convex, thalluscolour-pruinose; margin thallus-coloured pruinose; excipulum 40-70 mu thick, K+ red needles, outermost ectal hyaline, rest carbonaceous, hypothecium carbonaceous; hymenium ca. 60 mu, not inspersed; epithecium grey, olive-golden, with granular epipsamma, K-. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, 12.5-15 x 5-7 mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, finely sculptured. Pycnospores bacillar, 11-14 x 1-1.2 mu. Brazil, Tanzania (2 specimens), 1000-1450 m.
25b Excipulum without hyaline layer --- 26

26a Most ascospores more than 17 mu long; known from the Northern Andes above 2000 m --- Baculifera intermedia Marbach
(THALLUS white to ochraceous, smooth to slightly warted, strongly fissured to areolate, NIS, black to dark grey prothallus, with atranorin and norstictic acid, K+ red, UV-. APOTHECIA 0.5-0.8(-1.2) mm diam., sessile to rather immersed; disc flat to convex, thalluscolour -pruinose; margin pruinose as disc; excipulum 30-40 mu thick, carbonaceous to red-brown, K+ red needles, hypothecium carbonaceous; hymenium 70-100 mu, not inspersed; epithecium olive-grey to olive-golden, with granular epithecium dissolving in K. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, (16-)17-19 x 7.5-9 mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, coarsely sculptured. Pycnospores bacillar, 9-10 x 1.0-1.1 mu. Northern Andes 2000-3200 m.
26b Most ascospores less than 16 mu long; widespread below ca. 1500 m --- 27

27a Ascospores ca. 10-13 mu long --- Baculifera cinereocincta (Müll. Arg.) Marbach
(THALLUS grey or ochraceous, smooth to slightly warted, slightly fissured, NIS, black prothallus, with norstictic acid, K+ red, UV-. APOTHECIA 0.4-0.7(-0.9) mm diam., sessile; disc flat, more or less thalluscolour-pruinose; margin non/pruinose?; excipulum 30-40 mu thick, K+ red needles, ectal red-brown to carbonaceous, med. brown, hypothecium dark red-brown or carbonaceous; hymenium 70-80 mu, not-inspersed; epithecium grey to olive-brown, with granular epithecium dissolving in K. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, 10-13(-15) x 5-7 mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, coarsely sculptured. Pycnospores bacillar,10-13 x 1.0-1.2 mu. Subtropical S America, Africa, 0-1500 m.
27b Ascospores ca. 14-16 mu long --- Baculifera intermedioides Marbach
(THALLUS grey to ochraceous, moderately to strongly warted, slightly to strongly fissured, NIS, black prothallus, with norstictic acid, K+ red, UV-. APOTHECIA 0.35-0.6 mm diam., sessile; disc flat to convex, pruinose in thallus colour; margin pruinose as disc; excipulum 40-50 mu thick, dark brown to carbonaceous, K+ red needles, hypothecium pale- to dark brown; hymenium 60-70 mu, not inspersed; epithecium grey to golden grey, with granular epithecium dissolving in K. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, (12-)14-16(-18) x (5.5-)6-7(-8) mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, smooth to finely sculptured. Pycnospores unknown. Neotropical (Mexico, Brazil) + Hawaii, 100-650 m.

28a (24) Apothecia to ca. 0.6 mm wide; disc UV- (no lichexanthone); asci not polysporous --- Baculifera entochlora (J. Steiner in Zahlbr.) Marbach
(THALLUS white- to dark grey or ochraceous, smooth to slightly warted, slightly fissured to areolate, NIS, black or no prothallus, with norstictic acid, K+ red, UV-. APOTHECIA 0.4-0.6(-0.7) mm diam., sessile; disc flat to convex, not or weakly white-pruinose; margin non/pruinose?; excipulum 50-60 mu thick, dark brown to carbonaceous, K+ red needles, hypothecium carbonaceous; hymenium 60-80 mu, not inspersed; epithecium black-green to dark olivaceous, K+ paler. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, (12-)14-16(-18) x (6-)7-8(-9) mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, coarsely sculptured. Pycnospores bacillar, 7-9 x 1.0-1.2 mu. Neotropical + Africa, 300-2500 m.
28b Apothecia to 0.9 mm wide; disc UV+ yellow (lichexanthone); asci polysporous --- Stigmatochroma adaucta (Malme) Marbach
(THALLUS white, grey, pale grey, ochraceous grey, slightly to moderately warted, slightly fissured to areolate, NIS, black prothallus, with atranorin, norstictic acid and pigmentosins, K+ yellow->red or +red, UV-. APOTHECIA 0.7-0.9 mm diam., sessile; disc flat or convex, white-pruinose, UV+ yellow (lichexanthone); margin non/pruinose?; excipulum 50-70 mu thick, dark brown to carbonaceous with paler, below open, central layer, K+ yellow or red (no needles), hypothecium dark brown or carbonaceous; hymenium 70-80 mu, not-inspersed; epithecium golden grey, orange, yellow-brown, K- or +discolouring. Paraphyse tips 2.5-3 mu thick, hyaline or with narrow cap. ASCOSPORES (8, 12, )16/ascus, 10-15 x 4.5-6(-7) mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, moderately sculptured. Pycnospores unknown. Pantropical, 120-800 m.

29a (18) Ascospores more than 17 mu long, with thickened septa --- "Buellia" aeruginascens (Nyl.) Zahlbr.
(THALLUS white, moderately warted, strongly fissured, NIS, no prothallus?, with atranorin, K+ yellow, UV+ pink?. APOTHECIA to 0.6 mm diam., sessile; disc concave or flat, thalluscolour-pruinose; margin non/pruinose?; excipulum ca. 70 mu thick, dark brown or carbonaceous, K+ yellow dissolving, no crystals, hypothecium dark brown; hymenium ca. 90 mu, not inspersed; epithecium golden grey, grey, with granular epipsamma dissolving n K. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, 17-20 x 7.5-9(-10) mu, 1-septate, ca. 3 mu thick septa, thin walls, finely sculptured. Pycnospores bacillar, 5-5.5 mu, with indistinct stalk. Chile (known from type only; POOR specimen, probably in Cratiria?).
29b Ascospores less than 15 mu long, with thin septa --- 30

30a Apothecia more than 0.5 mm, to 1.0 mm wide; thallus with lobaric acid and wihout xanthones, UV+ blue-violet --- Gassicurtia coccifera Marbach & Kalb
(THALLUS grey, greenish grey, strongly warted to granular, continuous, with red pigment in granules, NIS, black prothallus, with lobaric and chiodectonic acids, K+ yellowish, UV+ blue-violet. APOTHECIA 0.6-0.8(-1.0) mm diam., sessile to moderately immersed; disc flat to slightly convex, grey- or greybrown-pruinose, UV-; margin non/pruinose?; excipulum 30-50 mu thick, carbonaceous with thin external hyaline layer, K-, hypothecium carbonaceous; hymenium 60-70 mu, not inspersed, K+ yellowish; epithecium golden grey, with granular epipsamma dissolving in K. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, 8-11 x 4.5-5.5 mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, moderately sculptured. Pycnospores clavate, 5.5-6.5 x 1-1.2 mu. Brazil, 500 m (known from type only).
30b Apothecia less than 0.5 mm wide; thallus without lobaric acid, with xanthones, mostly UV+ orange --- 31

31a Thallus UV- or UV+ red --- Gassicurtia acidobaeomyceta Marbach
(THALLUS white, fine-warted to granular, continuous or slightly fissured, partly with red pigment, NIS, no or black prothallus, with atranorin, chiodectonic, baeomycesic, squamatic, thiophanic and 3-O-methylthiophanic acids and arthothelin, K+ yellow, UV- or + red. APOTHECIA to 0.3(-0.4) mm diam., sessile; disc flat or convex, non- or grey-pruinose; margin non/pruinose?; excipulum 20-30 mu thick, K+ yellow, ectal dark brown or carbonaceous, med. thin, paler, hypothecium dark brown or carbonaceous; hymenium 45-50 mu, not inspersed, slightly yellow, K+ more yellow; epithecium grey, golden-grey, olive-brown, with granular epipsamma dissolving in K. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, 10-13 x 4-5 mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, moderately sculptured. Pycnospores unknown. Brazil, Hawaii, 0-800 m.
31b Thallus UV+ orange --- Gassicurtia subpulcella (Vainio) Marbach
(THALLUS grey-white, yellow-grey or yellow, fine-warted to granular, continuous to slightly fissured, with red pigment, NIS, no or grey or black prothallus, with thiophanic acid, a red pigment and indet. traces, K+ yellow, UV+ orange. APOTHECIA 0.3-0.4(-0.5) mm diam., sessile; disc flat to convex, grey-pruinose, UV-; margin non/pruinose?; excipulum 30-45 mu thick, K+ yellow, ectal dark brown or carbonaceous, med. red- or pale-brown, hypothecium dark brown or carbonaceous; hymenium 45-60 mu, not inspersed, pale yellowish, K+ more yellow; epithecium grey, golden grey or olive-brown, with granular epipsamma, C+ yellow-orange, K+ dissolving. Paraphyse tips 2.5-3.5 mu thick, hyaline or with narrow brown cap. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, (10-)12-14(-15) x (4-)4.5-5(-5.5) mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, moderately sculptured. Pycnospores unknown. Pantropical, 0-800 m.

32a (12) Apothecium discs yellow-pruinose --- 33
32b Apothecium discs orange-, red- or brown-pruinose --- 37

33a Thallus K+ yellow (norstictic acid minor substance); excipulum K-; thallus mount in K not producing red needle-shaped crystals --- Cratiria chloraceus Marbach
(THALLUS yellow, slightly warted, strongly fissured, NIS, black prothallus, with arthothelin, 6-O-methylarthothelin and tr. norstictic acid, K+ yellow, UV+ orange. APOTHECIA to 0.8(-1.0) mm diam., sessile; disc flat or convex, thalluscolour(UV+ orange)-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum 50-60 mu thick, carbonaceous with paler, yellow-pigmented, below closed central layer, hypothecium dark brown or carbonaceous; hymenium 80-100 mu, inspersed; epithecium golden grey with granular epithecium dissolving in K. Paraphyse tips 2.5-3 mu wide ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, (14-)15-17(-20) x 6-8 mu, 1-septate, to 4 mu thick septa, apically thickened walls, moderately sculptured. Pycnospores unknown. New Caledonia.
33b Thallus K+ yellow turning red (norstictic acid major substance); excipulum K+ yellow solution producing red crystal needles; thallus mount in K producing red needle-shaped crystals --- 34

34a Ascospores less than 16 mu long --- Stigmatochroma gerontoides (Stirton) Marbach
(THALLUS grey, ochraceous to yellow, slightly to moderately warted, continuous to strongly fissured, NIS, black or no prothallus, with norstictic and thiophaninic acids and other xanthones in variable amounts, K+ yellow->red, UV+ orange or UV-. APOTHECIA 0.4-0.7(-1.0) mm diam., sessile; disc flat to slightly convex, grey-, ochraceous- or yellow-pruinose, UV+ yellow (lichexanthone), orange (other xanthones); margin non/pruinose?; excipulum 30-50 mu thick, dark brown or carbonaceous, K+ red needles, hypothecium dark brown or carbonaceous; hymenium 70-100 mu, not-inspersed; epithecium grey to golden grey, with granular epipsamma dissolving in K. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, (12-)13-15(-16) x 5-6(-6.5) mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, smooth or finely sculptured. Pycnospores unknown. Neotropical, 0-700 m.
34b Ascospores more than 16 mu long --- 35

35a Thallus yellowish, with xanthones, UV+ --- Stigmatochroma metaleptoides (Nyl.) Marbach
(THALLUS ochraceous to yellow-grey, yellow-white or yellow, slightly to moderately warted, continuous, NIS, black prothallus, with norstictic and thiophaninic acids and other xanthones, K+ red, UV+ pink, orange or red, APOTHECIA 0.4 mm diam., sessile; disc concave, white- or yellow-pruinose, UV+ orange or red; margin non/pruinose?; excipulum ca. 70 mu thick, carbonaceous with paler, red-brown, below open, central zone, K+ yellow or purplish, often with red needles, hypothecium dark brown with yellow pigments, K+ purplish; hymenium ca. 80 mu, not inspersed; epithecium golden grey or grey, with granular epipsamma dissolving in K. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, (16-)18-21 x 6.5-9 mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, finely sculptured. Pycnospores unknown. Pantropical, 1000-2100 m.
35b Thallus pale grey, without xanthones, UV- --- 36

36a Hymenium K- --- Stigmatochroma epiflavia Marbach
(THALLUS ochraceous to grey-white, smooth to slightly warted, continuous to slightly fissured, NIS, black prothallus, with atranorin and norstictic acid, K+ yellow->red, UV-. APOTHECIA 0.5-0.7(-0.8) mm diam., sessile; disc slightly concave or flat, yellow-pruinose, UV+ yellow (lichexanthone); margin non/pruinose?; excipulum 35-50 mu thick, dark brown or carbonaceous, with slightly paler central or medullary layer, K+ red needles, hypothecium dark brown or carbonaceous; hymenium ca. 80 mu, not-inspersed; epithecium golden to golden grey, with granular epipsamma not dissolving in K. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, (15-)18-20(-24) x 6-7(-7.5) mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, fine- to moderately- sculptured. Pycnospores bacillar, 6-7 x 1.0-1.1 mu. SE Brazil, 450-700 m.
36b Hymenium partly K+ violet --- Stigmatochroma kryptoviolascens Marbach
(THALLUS white, grey or ochraceous grey, moderately warted, slightly fissured to areolate, NIS, black prothallus, with atranorin and norstictic acid, K+ yellow->red or +red, UV-. APOTHECIA 0.5-0.7(-0.9) mm diam., sessile; disc slightly concave or flat, yellow-pruinose, UV+ yellow (lichexanthone); margin non/pruinose?; excipulum 50-60 mu thick, dark brown to carbonaceous with paler central layer or medullary layer, K+ red crystals, hypothecium dark brown or carbonaceous; hymenium 70-80 mu, not inspersed, partly K+ violet; epithecium golden to golden grey, with granular epipsamma partly dissolving in K. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, (16-)18-20(-22) x 7-8 mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, finely sculptured. Pycnospores bacillar, 6-7 x 1 mu. Brazil, 120-900 m.

37a (32) Ascospores more than 15 mu long --- 38
37b Ascospores less than 15 mu long --- 39

38a Ascospores of Pachysporaria-type with very thick walls and small, rounded lumina --- "Buellia" violascens Vainio
(THALLUS grey to greenish grey, furfuraceous, NIS, no prothallus, with indet. substances, K-/+yellow/red?, UV-. APOTHECIA to 0.4 mm diam., sessile to moderately immersed; disc flat, darkbrown-pruinose; margin non/pruinose?; excipulum ca. 20 mu thick, dark brown, K- or K+ violet near hypothecium, hypothecium pale with yellow pigment, K+ violet; hymenium ca. 100 mu, not inspersed; epithecium brown to dark brown. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, 18-23 x 8-12 mu, 1-septate, thin septa, strongly equally thickened walls (Pachysporaria-like), smooth. Pycnospores unknown. Brazil (Minas Gerais-Sao Paulo).
38b Ascospores with only slightly thickened walls, with angular lumina --- Stigmatochroma epimarta (Nyl.) Marbach
(THALLUS white, white-grey, ochraceous, smooth or slightly warted, slightly fissured to areolate, NIS, black prothallus, with atranorin and norstictic acid, K+ yellow->red, UV-. APOTHECIA 0.6-0.9 mm diam., sessile; disc flat or convex, orange- or redbrown-pruinose, UV+ red (parietin); margin non/pruinose?; excipulum 40-50(-70) mu thick, dark brown to carbonaceous, with paler, red-brown, below open, central layer, K+ red crystals, hypothecium dark brown or carbonaceous; hymenium 70-90 mu, not inspersed; epithecium orange, K+ pink with fine crystals. Paraphyse tips 2.5-3 mu wide, hyaline or with narrow cap. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, (15-)17-22 x 7-9(-10) mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, smooth. Pycnospores bacillar, 6-8 x 1.0-1.2 mu. Pantropical (excl. Asia?), 0-800 m.

39a Ascospores with up to 16/ascus --- 40
39b Ascospores with up to 8/ascus --- 41

40a Epithecium pink, without granules, C-, K+ violet->colourless --- Gassicurtia chermesina (Kalb) Marbach
(THALLUS yellowish white, warted to granular, continuous, with red pigment, NIS, no prothallus, with chiodectonic, thiophanic and 3-O-methylthiophanic acids and arthothelin, K+ yellow, UV+ orange. APOTHECIA to 0.3(-0.4) mm diam., sessile; disc concave/flat/convex?, red-pruinose; margin red-pruinose; excipulum ca. 25 mu thick, ectal dark brown or carbonaceous, paler above, with red pigment, K+ violet, hypothecium dark brown or carbonaceous; hymenium ca. 60 mu, not inspersed; epithecium pink, K+ violet->colourless. Paraphyse tips 2.5-3 mu thick, hyaline. ASCOSPORES (8, 12, )16/ascus, 7-9 x 3-3.5 mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, smooth. Pycnospores unknown. Kenya, 300 m, on Pinus.
40b Epithecium grey or golden grey, with granular epipsamma, C+ orange, granules dissolving in K --- Gassicurtia manguensia Marbach
(THALLUS grey or yellowish grey, moderately warty to granular, NIS, dark grey or no prothallus, with thiophanic and 3-O-methylthiophanic acids, arthothelin and a red pigment, K-, UV+ orange. APOTHECIA to 0.3(-0.4) mm diam., sessile; disc flat, greybrown-pruinose; margin partly greybrown-pruinose; excipulum 25-30 mu thick, dark brown, usually with red pigment, K+ dark violet, hypothecium dark brown; hymenium ca. 60 mu, not inspersed; epithecium grey or golden grey, with granular epipsamma, C+ orange, granules dissolving in K. Paraphyse tips 2.5-3 mu wide, with brown cap. ASCOSPORES (8, 12, )16/ascus, 9-11 x 3.5-4.5 mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, finely sculptured. Pycnospores unknown. Brazil, 0 m (known from type only).

41a Apothecium disc orange-, red- or redbrown-pruinose --- 42
41b Apothecium disc grey-brown-pruinose --- 45

42a Excipulum K+ olivaceous or violet --- 43
42b Excipulum K- --- 44

43a Apothecia red-pruinose; ascospores less than 10 mu long; epithecium pink, K+ violet->colourless --- Gassicurtia chermesina (Kalb) Marbach
(THALLUS yellowish white, warted to granular, continuous, with red pigment, NIS, no prothallus, with chiodectonic, thiophanic and 3-O-methylthiophanic acids and arthothelin, K+ yellow, UV+ orange. APOTHECIA to 0.3(-0.4) mm diam., sessile; disc concave/flat/convex?, red-pruinose; margin red-pruinose; excipulum ca. 25 mu thick, ectal dark brown or carbonaceous, paler above, with red pigment, K+ violet, hypothecium dark brown or carbonaceous; hymenium ca. 60 mu, not inspersed; epithecium pink, K+ violet->colourless. Paraphyse tips 2.5-3 mu thick, hyaline. ASCOSPORES (8, 12, )16/ascus, 7-9 x 3-3.5 mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, smooth. Pycnospores unknown. Kenya, 300 m, on Pinus.
43b Apothecia redbrown-pruinose; ascospores more than 11 mu long; epithecium orange-brown with granular epipsamma, K+ olivaceous, granules hardly dissolving --- Gassicurtia rufofuscescens (Vainio) Marbach
(THALLUS white, glossy, slightly warted, continuous, NIS, black, grey or no prothallus, with chiodectonic, thiophanic and 3-O-methylthiophanic acids, K+ yellow, UV-. APOTHECIA to 0.3(-0.4) mm diam., sessile; disc concave or flat, redbrown-pruinose; margin non/pruinose?; excipulum ca. 30 mu thick, carbonaceous with red pigment, K+ dark violet, dissolving, hypothecium carbonaceous; hymenium ca. 60 mu, not inspersed, K+ yellowish; epithecium orange-brown with granular epipsamma, K+ olivaceous, granules hardly dissolving. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, 11-13 x 5-6 mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, moderately sculptured. Pycnospores unknown. Neotropics, 660-800 m.

44a Thallus without xanthones, UV-; apothecium discs orange-pruinose; epithecium orange, dissolving in K --- Gassicurtia elizae (Tuck.) Marbach
(THALLUS yellowish grey, granular or coralloid-isidiate, black prothallus, with barbatic and obtusatic acids, K-, UV-. APOTHECIA 0.3-0.4 mm diam., sessile; disc flat or convex, brick-red, orange-pruinose UV+ red; margin non/pruinose?; excipulum 30-50 mu thick, K-, ectal carbonaceous, med. paler, hypothecium carbonaceous; hymenium 60-70 mu, not inspersed; epithecium thick orange, dissolving in K. Paraphyse tips 2-2.5 mu thick, hyaline. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, (10-)11-13(-15) x 5-6(-7) mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, coarsely sculptured. Pycnospores unknown. Wide-pantropical, 500-2000 m.
44b Thallus with xanthones, UV+ orange; apothecium discs redbrown-pruinose; epithecium orange-brown, K+ dark olivaceous, with granular epipsamma dissolving largely in K --- Gassicurtia ferruginascens (Malme) Marbach & Kalb
(THALLUS grey, greenish grey, strongly warted to granular, continuous, with red pigment, partly exposed, NIS, black prothallus, with chiodectonic and thiophanic acids and arthothelin, K+ yellow, UV+ orange. APOTHECIA to 0.5(-0.6) mm diam., sessile; disc flat or slightly concave, redbrown-pruinose; margin non/pruinose?; excipulum ca. 45 mu thick, carbonaceous, K-, hypothecium carbonaceous; hymenium ca 60 mu, not inspersed, pale yellowish, K+ more yellow; epithecium orange-brown, K+ dark olivaceous, with granular epipsamma dissolving largely in K. Paraphyse tips ca. 3 mu thick, with narrow brown cap. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, 10-12 x 4-4.5 mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, moderately sculptured. Pycnospores unknown. Brazil + Hawaii, 300-850 m.

45a Thallus UV- (xanthones absent) --- Gassicurtia coccifera Marbach & Kalb
(THALLUS grey, greenish grey, strongly warted to granular, continuous, with red pigment in granules, NIS, black prothallus, with lobaric and chiodectonic acids, K+ yellowish, UV+ blue-violet. APOTHECIA 0.6-0.8(-1.0) mm diam., sessile to moderately immersed; disc flat to slightly convex, grey- or greybrown-pruinose, UV-; margin non/pruinose?; excipulum 30-50 mu thick, carbonaceous with thin external hyaline layer, K-, hypothecium carbonaceous; hymenium 60-70 mu, not inspersed, K+ yellowish; epithecium golden grey, with granular epipsamma dissolving in K. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, 8-11 x 4.5-5.5 mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, moderately sculptured. Pycnospores clavate, 5.5-6.5 x 1-1.2 mu. Brazil, 500 m (known from type only).
45b Thallus UV+ orange (xanthones present) --- 46

46a Epithecium granules dissolving in K --- Gassicurtia manguensia Marbach
(THALLUS grey or yellowish grey, moderately warty to granular, NIS, dark grey or no prothallus, with thiophanic and 3-O-methylthiophanic acids, arthothelin and a red pigment, K-, UV+ orange. APOTHECIA to 0.3(-0.4) mm diam., sessile; disc flat, greybrown-pruinose; margin partly greybrown-pruinose; excipulum 25-30 mu thick, dark brown with red pigment, K+ dark violet, hypothecium dark brown; hymenium ca. 60 mu, not inspersed; epithecium grey or golden grey, with granular epipsamma, C+ orange, granules dissolving in K. Paraphyse tips 2.5-3 mu wide, with brown cap. ASCOSPORES (8, 12, )16/ascus, 9-11 x 3.5-4.5 mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, finely sculptured. Pycnospores unknown. Brazil, 0 m (known from type only).
46b Epithecium granules not dissolving in K --- Gassicurtia pseudosubpulcella Marbach
(THALLUS grey-white, slightly to moderately warted, continuous, NIS, no prothallus, with thiophanic and 3-O-methylthiophanic acids, arthothelin and a red pigment, K+ yellow, UV+ orange. APOTHECIA to 0.3 mm diam., sessile; disc flat, greybrown-pruinose; margin non/pruinose?; excipulum 30-40 mu thick, carbonaceous wit red pigment, K+ dark violet, dissolving, hypothecium carbonaceous; hymenium ca. 50 mu, not inspersed, yellowish, K+ more yellow; epithecium golden-orange to orange-brown, with granular epipsamma, K-, C+ yellow-orange. Paraphyse tips 2.5-3 mu thick, hyaline or with narrow brown cap. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, 11-14 x 4.5-5 mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, moderately sculptured. Pycnospores unknown. Costa Rica, Ecuador, ca. 1000 m.

47a (11) Hymenium inspersed throughout with many oil droplets --- 48
47b Hymenium without or with scarce oil droplets mainly near the hypothecium --- 69

48a Thallus K+ yellow soon turning red (norstictic acid major substance) --- 49
48b Thallus K+ yellow or K- (norstictic acid absent or in traces) --- 60

49a Excipulum 3-layered, with dark brown to carbonaceous outer and inner layer and slightly paler middle layer; ascospore walls sometimes with slight apical thickenings --- 50
49b Excipulum equally dark brown to carbonaceous throughout, or with somewhat paler inner layer; ascospore walls sometimes with subapical thickenings and thin at the apices --- 53

50a Most ascospores less than 18 mu long --- 51
50b Most ascospores more than 18 mu long --- 52

51a Excipulum in K forming red needle-shaped crystals; hymenium 80-90 mu --- Cratiria amphorea (Eckfeldt) Marbach
(THALLUS white to grey or ochraceous, slightly to moderately warted, strongly fissured to areolate, NIS, black prothallus, with atranorin and norstictic acid, K+ yellow->red, UV-. APOTHECIA 0.4-0.8(-0.9) mm diam., sessile; disc flat to convex, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum 50-80 mu thick, dark brown to carbonaceous with paler, yellow-pigmented, below closed, central layer, K+ red needles, hypothecium dark brown or carbonaceous; hymenium 80-90 mu, inspersed; epithecium olive, dark-, red-brown. Paraphyse tips 3-3.5 mu wide. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, (15-)16-18(-20) x 7-8(-10) mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, sometimes apically thickened, coarsely sculptured. Pycnospores bacillar, 4.5-5.5 x 1-1.2 mu. Neotropical, China, 1100-1250 m.
51b Excipulum in KOH not forming such crystals; hymenium ca. 120 mu --- Cratiria saltensis (H. Magn.) Marbach
(THALLUS ochraceous white, slightly warted, slightly to strongly fissured, NIS, black prothallus, with atranorin and norstictic acid, K+ yellow->red, UV-. APOTHECIA to 0.5 mm diam., sessile; disc flat or concave, thalluscolour-pruinose or non-pruinose; margin non/pruinose?; excipulum ca. 70 mu thick, carbonaceous, with paler, yellow-pigmented, below closed, central layer, K+ orange (NO needles), hypothecium carbonaceous; hymenium ca. 120 mu, inspersed; epithecium olive-golden. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, (15-)16-18(-19) x 7.5-9 mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin or apically slightly thickened walls, coarsely sculptured. Pycnospores bacillar, 4.5-5.5 x 1.1 mu, indistinctly stalked. South America, 250-1500 m.

52a Most ascospores less than 21 mu long --- Cratiria paramoensis Marbach
(THALLUS grey, pale grey, granular, NIS, black prothallus, with atranorin and norstictic acid, K+ yellow->red, UV-. APOTHECIA to 0.8(-1.0) mm diam., sessile; disc flat, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum ca. 80 mu thick, carbonaceous with slightly paler, slightly yellow, below closed, central layer, K+ red needles, hypothecium carbonaceous; hymenium ca. 110 mu, inspersed; epithecium orange-red to red-brown. ASCOSPORES (4, 6, )8/ascus, 18-21 x 8.5-11(-12) mu, 1-septate, ca. 4 mu thick septa, thick and apically thickened walls, weakly sculptured. Pycnospores bacillar, 4-4.5 x 1.2 mu, indistinctly stalked. Ecuador, 3400 m (known from type only).
52b Most ascospores more than 21 mu long --- Cratiria rutilans Marbach & Kalb
(THALLUS grey, moderately sculptured. continuous to slightly fissured, NIS, black prothallus, with atranorin and norstictic acid, K+ yellow, UV-. APOTHECIA 0.7-0.8(-1.2) mm diam., sessile; disc concave or flat, non-pruinose, slightly reddish; margin non-pruinose; excipulum 60-120 mu thick, carbonaceous with slightly paler, yellowish, below closed, central layer, K- or K+ red needles, hypothecium carbonaceous; hymenium 100-120 mu, inspersed; epithecium orange to red-brown. Paraphyse tips ca. 2.5 mu thick. ASCOSPORES (4, 6, )8/ascus, (18-)21-25(-28) x 10-12 mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin, juv. apically thickened walls, coarsely sculptured. Pycnospores bacillar, 4-5 x 1.0-1.3 mu, with indistinct stalk. Pantropical, 300-1750 m.

53a (49) Ascospores under 20 mu long, sometimes more than 8/ascus --- 54
53b Ascospores over 20 mu long, up to 8/ascus --- 59

54a Epithecium K+ violet --- 55
54b Epithecium K- or +greenish --- 57

55a Hymenium ca. 60 mu; asci not polysporous, ascospores 8/ascus, with ca. 3 mu thick septa --- Hafellia bahiana (Malme) Sheard
(THALLUS white, smooth/warted/areolate?, NIS, no prothallus?, with norstictic acid, K+ yellow->red, UV-. APOTHECIA ca. 0.5 mm diam., sessile/immersed?; disc concave/flat/convex?, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum xxx mu thick, ectal carbonaceous, med. brown, hypothecium carbonaceous; hymenium ca. 60 mu, inspersed; epithecium olivaceous or olive-green, K+ violet. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, (13-)15-18(-20) x (5.5-)6-7(-8) mu, 1-septate, ca. 3 mu thick septa, subapically thickened walls, smooth. Pycnospores bacillar/filiform, xxx x xxx mu. Pantropical (excl. Asia?), 0-600 m.
55b Hymenium ca. 100 mu; most asci polysporous, with 12-16 spores/ascus, with thin septa --- Hafellia pleiotera (Malme) Marbach
(THALLUS ochraceous grey to -brown, smooth or slightly warted, strongly fissured or areolate, NIS, no prothallus, with norstictic acid, K+ yellow->red, UV-. APOTHECIA 0.3-0.4(-0.5) mm diam., sessile; disc flat or convex, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum 20-30 mu thick, K-, ectal carbonaceous, med. paler, hypothecium carbonaceous; hymenium ca. 100 mu, inspersed; epithecium olive-green to black, K+ violet. ASCOSPORES (8, 12, )16/ascus, (12-)14-16(-18) x 5-6(-7) mu, 1-septate, thin septa, weakly subapically thickened walls, smooth. Pycnospores unknown. Pantropical (excl. Asia?), 300-450 m.

57a Thallus cartilagineous, thick --- Hafellia rechingeri (Zahlbr.) Marbach
(THALLUS ochraceous white to white, cartilagineous to subsquamulose, smooth, glossy, continuous to slightly fissured, NIS, no prothallus, with norstictic acid, K+ red, UV-. APOTHECIA 0.3-0.4 mm diam., sessile; disc flat to convex, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum 30-60 mu thick, carbonaceous, K-, often with paler medullary layer, hypothecium carbonaceous; hymenium 60-80 mu, inspersed; epithecium dark brown or black, K-. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, (12-)15-17(-18) x (4-)5-6 mu, 1-septate, thin septa, slightly to moderately subapically thickened walls, smooth to slightly sculptured. Pycnospores unknown. N. Australia, Pacific, 0-610 m.
57b Thallus not cartilagineous, thin --- 58

58a Asci not polysporous, with up to 8 spores; epithecium greenish black, black-olivaceous, olive-brown, K+ yellow-green or olivaceous or K- --- Hafellia curatellae (Malme) Marbach
(THALLUS ochraceous, grey or pale grey, slightly to strongly warted, slightly to strongly fissured, NIS, no or black prothallus, with norstictic acid, K+ yellow->red, UV-. APOTHECIA 0.4-0.6 mm diam., sessile or moderately immersed; disc flat to convex, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum 20-30 mu thick, ectal carbonaceous, med. carbonaceous or paler, K-, hypothecium carbonaceous; hymenium 60-80(-100) mu, inspersed; epithecium greenish black, black-olivaceous, olive-brown, K+ yellow-green or olivaceous or K-. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, (15-)16-18(-22) x 6-7(-8) mu, 1-(or seemingly 3-)septate, thin septa, subapically somewhat thickened walls, finely sculptured. Pycnospores unknown. Pantropical, 0-2300 m.
58b Most asci polysporous, with 12-16 spores; epithecium brown, red- or olive-brown, K- --- Hafellia subnexa (Nyl.) Marbach
(THALLUS ochraceous white to white, smooth to slightly warted, slightly to strongly fissured, NIS, no prothallus, with atranorin or norstictic acid, K- or + yellow or + red, UV-. APOTHECIA 0.35-0.6 mm diam., sessile; disc flat to convex, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum 30-60 mu thick, ectal carbonaceous, med. pale brown, hypothecium dark brown; hymenium 80-100 mu, inspersed; epithecium brown, red- or olive-brown, K-. ASCOSPORES (8, 12, )16/ascus, (13-)15-17 x 6-7(-8) mu, 1-septate, thin septa, slightly subapically thickened walls, smooth to finely sculptured, widely rounded apices. Pycnospores not seen. Japan and SE Asia.

59a (53) Ascospores with strongly thickened septa and subapical walls, smooth --- Hafellia fraudans (Starbäck) Pußwald
(THALLUS white or ochraceous white, smooth/warted/areolate?, NIS, no prothallus?, with norstictic acid, K+ yellow->red, UV-. APOTHECIA xxx mm diam., sessile; disc concave/flat/convex?, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum xxx mu thick, carbonaceous, hypothecium carbonaceous; hymenium xxx mu, inspersed; epithecium brown/xxx?, K-. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, (22-)24-28(-34) x (8-)9-11(-14) mu, 1-septate, ca. 4 mu thick septa, strongly subapically thickened walls, smooth. Pycnospores bacillar/filiform, xxx x xxx mu. Australia, Hawaii, Brazil.
59b Ascospores with weakly thickened septa and subapical walls, moderately sculptured --- Hafellia subcrassata Pußwald
(THALLUS white to ochraceous or pale greenish, smooth/warted?, continuous to fissured, often with brown granules, NIS, no prothallus, with norstictic acid, K+ orange, UV-. APOTHECIA 0.2-0.9 mm diam., sessile; disc flat to convex, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum xxx mu thick, dark brown, hypothecium brown; hymenium 90-110 mu, inspersed; epithecium brown, K-. ASCOSPORES to 8/ascus, 26-32 x 9-12 mu, 1-septate, ca. 2 mu thick septa, moderately subapically thickened walls, moderately sculptured. Pycnospores bacillar, 5-7 x 1 mu. Queensland, 900 m (known from type only).

60a (48) Most ascospores more than 23 mu long, with strongly thickened septa and subapical walls --- 61
60b Most ascospores less than 23 mu long, with slightly thickened septa and subapical walls or otherwise --- 65

61a Ascospores consistently less than 8/ascus --- 62
61b Ascospores mostly 8/ascus --- 64

62a Ascospores 2(-3)/ascus --- 63
62b Ascospores 4/ascus, ca. 32-38 mu long --- Hafellia tetrapla (Nyl.) Pußwald
(THALLUS white, grey, olivaceous grey, smooth/warted/areolate?, NIS, no prothallus?, with atranorin and diploicin, K+ yellow, UV-. APOTHECIA xxx mm diam., sessile; disc flat to convex, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum xxx mu thick, ectal carbonaceous, hypothecium carbonaceous; hymenium xxx mu, inspersed; epithecium dark brown, K-. ASCOSPORES 4/ascus, (28-)32-38(-45) x 14-16(-18) mu, 1-septate, ca. 5 mu thick septa, strongly subapically thickened walls, coarsely sculptured. Pycnospores bacillar/filiform, xxx x xxx mu. Southern South America, Africa, Australia, 0-900 m.

63a Ascospores less than 40 mu long --- Hafellia dissa (Stirton) H. Mayrhofer & Sheard in Sheard
(THALLUS white or ochraceous, smooth/warted/areolate?, NIS, no prothallus?, with atranorin and diploicin, K+ yellow, UV-. APOTHECIA xxx mm diam., sessile; disc concave/flat/convex?, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum xxx mu thick, ectal dark brown?, med. brown?, hypothecium dark brown?; hymenium xxx mu, inspersed; epithecium brown/xxx?, K-. ASCOSPORES 2/ascus, (22-)25-30(-40) x (10-)11-15(-16) mu, 1-septate, ca. 3 mu thick septa, moderately subapically thickened walls, sculptured. Pycnospores bacillar/filiform, xxx x xxx mu. TEMPERATE Australia, S. Africa.
63b Ascospores more than 40 mu long --- Hafellia pseudotetrapla Pußwald
(THALLUS white or ochraceous white, smooth/warted?, continuous to fissured, NIS, no prothallus?, with atranorin and diploicin, K+ yellow, UV-. APOTHECIA 0.2-1.2 mm diam., sessile; disc flat to convex, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum xxx mu thick, brown, hypothecium dark brown; hymenium ca. 120 mu, inspersed; epithecium dark brown, K-. ASCOSPORES 2(-3)/ascus, 44-61 x 15-24 mu, 1-septate, ca. 5 mu thick septa, moderately subapically thickened walls, coarsely sculptured. Pycnospores not seen. Temperate Australia, Costa Rica.

64a Most ascospores less than 30 mu long, with moderately thickened septa (ca. 5 mu) and subapical walls, moderately sculptured --- Hafellia demutans (Stirton) Pußwald
(THALLUS white or ochraceous, smooth/warted/areolate?, NIS, no prothallus, with atranorin and diploicin, K+ yellow, UV-. APOTHECIA xxx mm diam., sessile/immersed?; disc concave/flat/convex?, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum xxx mu thick, carbonaceous, hypothecium carbonaceous; hymenium xxx mu, inspersed; epithecium brown/xxx?, K-. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, (22-)25-30(-40) x (9-)10-12(-14) mu, 1-septate, ca. 5 mu thick septa, subapically thickened walls, moderately sculptured. Pycnospores bacillar/filiform, xxx x xxx mu. Pantropical.
64b Most ascospores more than 30 mu long, with strongly thickened septa (ca. 8 mu) and subapical walls, smooth --- Hafellia parastata (Nyl.) Kalb, H. Mayrhofer & Scheid. in Kalb
(THALLUS white or ochraceous white, smooth/warted/areolate?, NIS, no prothallus?, with atranorin and diploicin, K+ yellow, UV-. APOTHECIA xxx mm diam., sessile; disc flat, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum xxx mu thick, carbonaceous, hypothecium carbonaceous; hymenium xxx mu, inspersed; epithecium brown/xxx?, K-. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, (30-)32-36(-38) x 12-16 mu, 1-septate, ca. 8 mu thick septa, strongly subapically thickened walls, smooth. Pycnospores bacillar/filiform, xxx x xxx mu. Pantropical, 0-1750 m.

65a Ascospores with equally strongly thickened walls (Pachysporaria-type) --- Sculptolumina serotina (Malme) Marbach
(THALLUS white, grey, ochraceous or olive-brown, smooth to furfuraceous, often diffusely sorediate, no or dark grey prothallus, with indet. pigments and often lobaric acid, K-, UV-. APOTHECIA 0.3-0.4 mm diam., sessile; disc flat to strongly convex, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum 20-40 mu thick, carbonaceous, K-, hypothecium carbonaceous; hymenium 90-110 mu, inspersed; epithecium dark-, olive- or red-brown. ASCOSPORES (4, 6, )8/ascus, (16-)18-22(-27) x (8-)9-12(-14) mu, 1-septate, ca. 6 mu thick septa, equally strongly thickened walls (Pachysporaria-like), smooth. Pycnospores unknown. Neotropical, 100-1450 m.
65b Ascospores with more or less thickened septa, subapical walls or apical walls, not thoroughly thickened --- 66

66a Ascospores with thickened septa and apical walls (Mischoblastia-type) --- Sculptolumina japonica (Tuck.) Marbach
(THALLUS olive-brown, dark grey, furfuraceous or small-squamulose, continuous, often diffusely sorediate, no prothallus, with indet. pigments, K- or + yellowish, UV- or spot wise (sorediate spots) + blue-violet. APOTHECIA (0.3-)0.4-0.5(-0.6) mm diam., sessile or moderately immersed; disc flat to strongly convex, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum 25-30 mu thick, carbonaceous, K-, hypothecium carbonaceous; hymenium 70-110 mu, inspersed; epithecium dark-, olive-, or red-brown. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, (17-)19-23(-27) mu, 1-septate, 8 mu thick septa, apically strongly thickened walls (Mischoblastia-like), moderately sculptured. Pycnospores unknown. Pantropical, 450-2400 m.
66b Ascospores with more or less thickened septa and thin apical walls but thick subapical walls --- 67

67a Ascospores with ca. 5 mu thick septa; asci not polysporous, with up to 8 spores --- 68
67b Ascospores with thin septa; asci usually polysporous, with up to 16 spores --- Hafellia subnexa (Nyl.) Marbach
(THALLUS ochraceous white to white, smooth to slightly warted, slightly to strongly fissured, NIS, no prothallus, with atranorin or norstictic acid, K- or + yellow or + red, UV-. APOTHECIA 0.35-0.6 mm diam., sessile; disc flat to convex, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum 30-60 mu thick, ectal carbonaceous, med. pale brown, hypothecium dark brown; hymenium 80-100 mu, inspersed; epithecium brown, red- or olive-brown, K-. ASCOSPORES (8, 12, )16/ascus, (13-)15-17 x 6-7(-8) mu, 1-septate, thin septa, slightly subapically thickened walls, smooth to finely sculptured, widely rounded apices. Pycnospores not seen. Japan and SE Asia.

68a Thallus thick, cartilagineous; epithecium K- --- Hafellia desertica Marbach
(THALLUS white, cartilagineous, smooth to slightly squamulose, areolate, NIS, no prothallus, with atranorin, diploicin and tr. norstictic acid, K+ yellow, UV-. APOTHECIA 0.5-0.7 mm diam., sessile; disc flat or convex, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum 20-45 mu thick, ectal carbonaceous, med. paler, K-, hypothecium dark brown or carbonaceous; hymenium 100-120(-140) mu, inspersed; epithecium olivaceous, olive- to golden brown, K-. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, (17-)18-20(-22) x 7-8(-10) mu, 1-septate, ca. 6 mu thick septa, slightly subapically thickened walls, smooth. Pycnospores bacillar, 5-6 x 1-1.3 mu, with indistinct stalk. Mexico (Sonora).
68b Thallus thin, not cartilagineous; epithecium K+ violet --- Hafellia reagens Pußwald
(THALLUS white to grey-white, smooth/warted?, continuous to fissured, NIS, no prothallus, with atranorin and diploicin, K+ yellow, UV-. APOTHECIA 0.1-0.5 mm diam., sessile; disc flat to convex, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum xxx mu thick, dark brown, hypothecium brown; hymenium ca. 130 mu, inspersed; epithecium brown, K+ violet. ASCOSPORES to 8/ascus, 14-20 x 5-8 mu, 1(-3 when old)-septate, ca. 5 mu thick septa, subapically strongly thickened walls, smooth. Pycnospores bacillar, 5 x 1 mu. Subtropical Australia.

69a (47) Ascospore septa thickened, ca. 2-15 mu thick, sometimes thick only in rather young spores, or with widened tubus reminding 4-locular spores --- 70
69b Ascospore septa always thin, not thicker than spore wall --- 77

70a Ascospore septa measuring over half of the spore length, persistent --- 71
70b Ascospore septa shorter, best visible in young spores --- 73

71a Ascospores seemingly 4-locular, with additional locules developing in the septum --- 72
71b Ascospores polarilocular --- Amandinea insperata (Nyl.) H. Mayrhofer & Ropin in H. Mayrhofer et al.
(THALLUS white to grey, slightly warted, NIS, no prothallus, with tr. atranorin, K- or pale yellow, UV-. APOTHECIA (0.25)0.4-0.5 mm diam., sessile or mostly immersed; disc flat to convex, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum 10-20 mu thick, ectal dark brown, med. pale brown, hypothecium brown; hymenium (50)60-80 mu, not inspersed; epithecium brown. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, (12)14-16(18) x (6)7-8(9) mu, 1-septate, thick septa 6-8 mu (polarilocular), thin walls, smooth. Pycnospores filiform, 12-15 x 0.8 mu. Pantropical-montane to subtropical.

72a Ascospores 21-28 mu long --- Amandinea placodiomorphoides (Imshaug) ined.
(THALLUS grey, smooth/warted/areolate?, NIS, no prothallus, with atranorin/norstictic/xxx?, K+ yellow, UV-. APOTHECIA 0.3-0.5 mm diam., sessile/immersed?; disc concave/flat/convex?, non/pruinose?; margin non/pruinose?; excipulum xxx mu thick, with oil droplets, ectal dark brown, med. brown, hypothecium dark brown?; hymenium xxx mu?, not/inspersed; epithecium brown/xxx. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, 21-28 x 9-10 mu, 1-(seemingly 3-)septate, thick septa with septal lumina, thin walls. Pycnospores unknown. Jamaica, 1700 m (known from type only).
72b Ascospores 16-18(-29) mu long --- Amandinea placodiomorpha (Vainio) Marbach
(THALLUS grey to greenish- or whitish grey, slightly to moderately warted, not to strongly fissured, NIS, no prothallus, with myeloconin D1, K-, UV-. APOTHECIA to 0.4 mm diam., sessile to strongly immersed; disc flat, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose, often seemingly with thalline margin; excipulum 20-30 mu thick, dark brown, hypothecium dark brown; hymenium 60-80(-100) mu, not-inspersed; epithecium olive-brown. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, 16-18(-20) x 7-8 mu, 1-(seemingly 3-)septate, ca. 10 thick septa with septal lumina, thin walls, smooth. Pycnospores filiform, 15-23 x 0.7 mu. Brazil-Paraguay.

73a Ascospores with thick apical walls, resembling Physcia-type --- "Buellia" yaucoensis Vainio
(THALLUS grey, smooth, slightly fissured, NIS, no prothallus, with unidentified substances, K-/+yellow/red?, UV-. APOTHECIA to 0.4 mm diam., sessile; disc flat or convex, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum ca. 30 mu thick, K-, ectal dark brown, med. yellowish, pale, hypothecium pale; hymenium ca. 60 mu, not inspersed; epithecium brown. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, 15-18 x 7-8 mu, 1-septate, ca. 4 mu thick septa, apically thickened walls (like Physcia-type), moderately sculptured. Pycnidia unknown. Caribbean.
73b Ascospores with thin apical walls --- 74

74a Ascospores 4-5 mu wide --- Endohyalina erinacea (Nyl.) Giralt, Van den Boom & Elix (syn. E. rappii (Imshaug ex R.C. Harris) Marbach)
(THALLUS grey, pale- or greenish grey, strongly warted to granular, continuous, NIS, no prothallus, with atranorin and diploicin, K- or + pale yellow, UV-. APOTHECIA 0.3-0.4 mm diam., sessile or moderately immersed; disc flat or convex, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum 15-20 mu thick, K-, ectal dark brown or carbonaceous, med. wide hyaline, hypothecium pale- or dark brown; hymenium 50-60 mu, not inspersed; epithecium dark brown, olivaceous or yellow-brown, K-. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, 10-13 x 4-5 mu, 1-septate, ca. 2 mu thick septa, thick, apically thickened walls, smooth. Pycnospores unknown. Brazil, Florida, 0-560 m.
74b Ascospores 7-12 mu wide --- 75

75a Thallus K+ yellow soon turning red (norstictic acid present); excipulum K+ yellow solution, soon with red crystals --- 76
76b Thallus K- or slightly brownish (fumarprotocetraric acid present) --- Chrismofulvea omalia Marbach
(THALLUS ochraceous grey, furfuraceous, diffusely sorediate, no prothallus, with fumarprotocetraric acid, K+ dark yellow, UV-. APOTHECIA to 0.3 mm diam., sessile; disc flat to strongly convex, non-pruinose; margin non persistent, non-pruinose; excipulum ca. 25 mu thick, brown, K-, hypothecium pale- or dark brown; hymenium ca. 80 mu, not inspersed; epithecium brown. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, (20-)21-23(-24) x 8-9 mu, 1-septate, thin or juv. thick septa, thin walls, smooth. Pycnospores unknown. Costa Rica, ca. 2600 m.

76a Apothecia up to 0.8 mm in diam.; lowlands of southern USA and southernmost Baja California --- Baculifera imshaugiana (R.C. Harris) Marbach
(THALLUS white-grey, smooth to slightly warted, continuous to strongly fissured, NIS, black to grey prothallus, with atranorin and norstictic acid, K+ red, UV-. APOTHECIA to 0.8 mm diam., sessile; disc flat, non-pruinose or with weak pruina of thallus colour; margin non-pruinose; excipulum 45-60 mu thick, pale to dark brown, K+ red needles, hypothecium carbonaceous; hymenium ca. 100 mu, not inspersed; epithecium brown or golden brown, sometimes with granular epithecium K+ dissolving. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, 18-21(-22) x 7-9 mu, 1-septate, more or less thick septa to 1/3 of spore length, slightly subapically thickened walls, coarsely sculptured. Pycnospores bacillar, 8-10 x 1.0-1.1 mu. Mexico to Florida.
76b Apothecia 0.7-1 (-1.5) mm in diam.; hills and mountains of Central America --- Baculifera orosa Marbach & Kalb
(THALLUS ochraceous (to grey), slightly to moderately warted, slightly fissured to areolate, NIS, black to dark grey prothallus, with atranorin and norstictic acid, K+ yellow->red, UV-. APOTHECIA 0.7-1.0(-1.5) mm diam., sessile; disc flat to concave, not or slightly thalluscolour-pruinose; margin non/pruinose as disc; excipulum 60-70(-90) mu thick, K+ red needles, ectal carbonaceous, med. dark- to red-brown, hypothecium dark brown or carbonaceous; hymenium 90-120(-140) mu, not inspersed; epithecium olive-, dark- or red-brown, K-. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, (17-) 20-24(-28) x (7.5-)8-9(-12) mu, 1-septate, weakly thickened (ca. 3 mu) septa, slightly subapically thickened walls, coarsely sculptured. Pycnospores bacillar, 8-11 x 1.0-1.1 mu. Central America-Mexico, 1950-2350 m.

77a (69) Excipulum K+ yellow solution, soon producing red crystals; thallus K+ yellow soon turning red (norstictic acid present) --- 78
77b Excipulum K- or K+ yellow, not producing red crystals; thallus K- or K- yellow or turning red (norstictic acid present or absent) --- 88

78a Ascospore wall equal on all sides in colour and thickness, except sometimes with a slight apical thickening --- 79
78b Ascospore wall with pale apices and often lateral thickenings or thgickened septa --- 82

79a Most ascospores under 18 mu long --- Cratiria obscurior (Stirton) Marbach & Kalb
(THALLUS white, pale grey, ochraceous grey, slightly to strongly warted, slightly fissured to areolate, NIS, black prothallus, with atranorin and norstictic acid, K+ yellow->red, UV-. APOTHECIA (0.6-)0.7-0.8(-1.0) mm diam., sessile; disc flat or slightly concave or -convex, not pruinose; margin not pruinose; excipulum (50-)60-80 mu thick, dark brown with paler, pale brown, yellowish brown or red-brown, below open, central layer, K+ yellow with red needles, hypothecium brown; hymenium 70-90 mu, not inspersed; epithecium red-, dark-, olive- or yellowish brown. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, (12-)14-17(-19) x 6-8 mu, 1-septate, thin septa, apically thickened walls, coarsely sculptured. Pycnospores bacillar, 4.5-5.5 x 1.2 mu, with indistinct stalk. Neotropical, occasional in Asia and Pacific, 0-1500 m.
79b Most ascospores over 18 mu long --- 80

80a Ascospores without wall thickenings --- 81
80b Ascospores with apical wall thickenings --- Cratiria megaobscurior Marbach
(THALLUS grey, ochraceous grey or white, moderately warted, strongly fissured to areolate, NIS, black prothallus, with atranorin and norstictic acid, K+ yellow->red, UV-. APOTHECIA 0.8-1.0(-1.2) mm diam., sessile to strongly immersed; disc flat to convex, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum 50-70 mu thick, dark brown with paler, below open, central layer, K+ yellow with red needles, hypothecium brown; hymenium ca. 100 mu, not inspersed; epithecium red- or olive-brown. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, 18-20(-22) x 8-9 mu, 1-septate, thin septa, apically thickened walls, coarsely sculptured. Pycnospores bacillar, 4-5 x 1-1.2 mu, indistinctly stalked. Kenya.

81a Dark outer layer of excipulum below closed and connected with the dark hypothecium; central layer yellow-pigmented --- Cratiria rutilantoides Marbach
(THALLUS white, slightly warted, slightly to strongly fissured, NIS, no prothallus, with atranorin and norstictic acid, K+ yellow, UV-. APOTHECIA to 0.8(-1.0) mm diam., sessile; disc flat, non-pruinose, reddish; margin non-pruinose; excipulum ca. 50 mu thick, carbonaceous, with paler, yellow-pigmented, below closed, central layer, K+ yellow with red crystals, hypothecium carbonaceous; hymenium ca. 120 mu, not-inspersed; epithecium orange-red. Paraphyse tips 2.5-3 mu thick. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, 17-21 x 7-8 mu, 1-septate, thin septa, apically very slightly thickened walls, coarsely sculptured. Pycnospores unknown. Queensland, Hawaii, 320-680 m.
81b Dark outer layer of excipulum below open and not connected with the dark hypothecium; central layer not pigmented --- Cratiria americana (Fée) Kalb & Marbach
(THALLUS white to grey or ochraceous grey, moderately warted, slightly to strongly fissured, NIS, black prothallus, with atranorin and norstictic acid, K+ yellow->red, UV-. APOTHECIA 0.6-0.7 mm diam., sessile; disc flat or slightly concave, non-pruinose, often reddish; margin non-pruinose; excipulum 70-90 mu thick, dark brown with paler, below open, central layer, K+ yellow with red needles<, hypothecium brown; hymenium 100-110 mu, not inspersed; epithecium red-brown or orange. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, 20-23(-25) x (9-)10-12(-13) mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, juv. with weak apical thickenings, coarsely sculptured. Pycnospores unknown. Neotropics, New Guinea, 900-1200 m.

82a (78) Most ascospores less than 18 mu long --- 83
82b Most ascospores more than 18 mu long --- 87

83a Epithecium K+ violet --- Baculifera epiviolascens Marbach
(THALLUS white- to ochraceous- or greenish-grey, smooth, continuous or slightly fissured, NIS, black prothallus, with atranorin, norstictic acid and diploicin, K+ red, UV-. APOTHECIA to 0.6(-0.8) mm diam., sessile; disc flat, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum 40-60 mu thick, dark brown to carbonaceous, K+ red needles, hypothecium carbonaceous; hymenium 70-100 mu, not inspersed; epithecium dark olivaceous to blue-green, K+ violet. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, (15-)16-18(-21) x (6.5-)7-8(-9) mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, coarsely sculptured. Pycnospores bacillar, 6.5-8 x 1.0-1.1 mu. Brazil, 1700-2000 m.
83b Epithecium K- or K+ greenish --- 84

84a Ascospores ca. 10-13 mu long --- Baculifera cinereocincta (Müll. Arg.) Marbach
(THALLUS grey or ochraceous, smooth to slightly warted, slightly fissured, NIS, black prothallus, with norstictic acid, K+ red, UV-. APOTHECIA 0.4-07(-0.9) mm diam., sessile; disc flat, more or less pruinose in thallus-colour; margin non/pruinose?; excipulum 30-40 mu thick, K+ red needles, ectal red-brown to carbonaceous, med. brown, hypothecium dark red-brown or carbonaceous; hymenium 70-80 mu, not-inspersed; epithecium grey to olive-brown, with granular epithecium dissolving in K. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, 10-13(-15) x 5-7 mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, coarsely sculptured. Pycnospores bacillar, 10-13 x 1.0-1.2 mu. Subtropical S America, Africa, 0-1500 m.
84b Ascospores ca. 14-17 mu long --- 85

85a Epithecium K+ greenish --- 86
85b Epithecium K- --- Baculifera remensa (Stirton) Marbach
(THALLUS (white to) pale ochraceous, slightly warted, slightly fissured to areolate, NIS, no prothallus, with atranorin and norstictic acid, K+ yellow->red, UV-. APOTHECIA 0.4-0.8(-1.0) mm diam., sessile; disc flat to convex, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum 40-70 mu thick, K+ red needles, ectal carbonaceous, med. dark- to red-brown, hypothecium dark brown or carbonaceous; hymenium 70-100 mu, not inspersed; epithecium red-, dark brown, K-. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, (13-)14-16(-17) x 6-8 mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, coarsely sculptured. Pycnospores unknown. Neotropics, Hawaii, alt.?

86a Ascospores coarsely sculptured --- Baculifera entochlora (J. Steiner in Zahlbr.) Marbach
(THALLUS white- to dark-grey or ochraceous, smooth to slightly warted, slightly fissured to areolate, NIS, black or no prothallus, with norstictic acid, K+ red, UV-. APOTHECIA 0.4-0.6(-0.7) mm diam., sessile; disc flat to convex, not or weakly white-pruinose; margin non/pruinose?; excipulum 50-60 mu thick, dark brown to carbonaceous, K+ red needles, hypothecium carbonaceous; hymenium 60-80 mu, not inspersed; epithecium black-green to dark olivaceous, K+ paler. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, (12-)14-16(-18) x (6-)7-8(-9) mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, coarsely sculptured. Pycnospores bacillar, 7-9 x 1.0-1.2 mu. Neotropical + Africa, 300-2500 m.
86b Ascospores smooth or finely sculptured --- Baculifera pseudomicromera Marbach
(THALLUS grey to greenish grey, smooth to slightly warted, continuous to strongly fissured, NIS, black or no prothallus, with atranorin and norstictic acid, K+ yellow->red, UV-. APOTHECIA to 0.5(-0.6) mm diam., sessile to moderately immersed; disc flat to convex, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum 30-60 mu thick, K+ red needles, dark brown to carbonaceous, hypothecium brown, red-brown or carbonaceous; hymenium 65-90 mu, not inspersed; epithecium olive-, dark brown or olive-black, K+ greenish. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, (14-)15-17(-19) x 6-7.5(-8) mu, 1-septate (sometimes seemingly 3-septate?), thin septa, thin or slightly subapically thickened walls, smooth or finely sculptured. Pycnospores unknown. Brazil + Kenya, 150-1450 m.

87a (82) Ascospores 27-35 mu long --- Baculifera longispora Marbach
(THALLUS ochraceous to ochraceous-white, slightly warted, strongly fissured to areolate, NIS, no prothallus, with atranorin and norstictic acid, K+ yellow, spot wise red, UV-. APOTHECIA to 0.9 mm diam., sessile; disc concave or flat, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum ca. 70 mu thick, ectal red-brown to carbonaceous, medullary paler, K+ red needles, hypothecium red-brown to carbonaceous; hymenium ca. 120 mu, not inspersed; epithecium red-brown. ASCOSPORES (4, )8/ascus, 27-35 x 9-11 mu, 1(-3)-septate, thin septa, weakly subapically thickened walls, sometimes seemingly additional septa at age, often curved, coarsely sculptured. Pycnospores bacillar, 6-9 x 1.0-1.2 mu. Guatemala 1950 m (known from type only).
87b Ascospores less than 27 mu long --- Baculifera orosa Marbach & Kalb
(THALLUS ochraceous (to grey), slightly to moderately warted, slightly fissured to areolate, NIS, black to dark grey prothallus, with atranorin and norstictic acid, K+ yellow->red, UV-. APOTHECIA 0.7-1.0(-1.5) mm diam., sessile; disc flat to concave, not or slightly thalluscolour-pruinose; margin non/pruinose as disc; excipulum 60-70(-90) mu thick, K+ red needles, ectal carbonaceous, med. dark- to red-brown, hypothecium dark brown or carbonaceous; hymenium 90-120(-140) mu, not inspersed; epithecium olive-, dark- or red-brown, K-. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, (17-) 20-24(-28) x (7.5-)8-9(-12) mu, 1-septate, weakly thickened (ca. 3 mu) septa, slightly subapically thickened walls, coarsely sculptured. Pycnospores bacillar, 8-11 x 1.0-1.1 mu. Central America-Mexico, 1950-2350 m.

88a (77) Thallus K+ yellow soon turning red (norstictic acid present) --- 89
88b thallus K- or + yellow, not turning red (norstictic acid absent) --- 94

89a Apothecia sessile, to ca. 1 mm wide --- 90
89b Apithecia immersed, to ca. 0.6 mm wide --- Amandinea microsticta (Meyen et Flotow) Marbach
(THALLUS white to pale grey, smooth or warted, continuous to strongly fissured, NIS, no prothallus, with atranorin and norstictic acid, K+ yellow to red, UV-. APOTHECIA 0.4-0.6 mm diam., +/- immersed; disc flat, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum 10-50 mu thick, ectal pale brown to carbonaceous, med. clear, hypothecium dark brown to carbonaceous; hymenium 90-100 mu, not inspersed; epithecium brown to olive-brown, K- or K+ paler. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, (12-)14-16(-18) x 6-7.5 mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, slightly curved, coarsely sculptured. Pycnospores filiform, (12-)17-23(-27) x 0.5-0.7(-0.9) mu. Tropical-subtropical, 250-2550 m.

90a Ascospore walls apically thickened; excipulum and hypothecium without yellow pigment --- "Buellia" rhombispora Marbach
(THALLUS grey to grey-white, moderately warted, continuous to areolate, NIS, black or no prothallus, with norstictic acid, K+ yellow->red, UV-. APOTHECIA to 0.4(-0.5) mm diam., sessile; disc flat, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum 40-70 mu thick, K-, ectal carbonaceous, med. hyaline, hypothecium pale brown; hymenium 100-120 mu, not inspersed; epithecium olive- to orange-brown, K-. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, (17-)18-20(-22) x 7.5-9 mu, 1-septate, thin septa, apically thickened walls, smooth, acuminate. Pycnospores unknown. Tropical South America, 1850-2850 m. (Probably in Cratiria?).
90b Ascospore walls subapically thickened or thin; excipulum and hypothecium with yellow, K+ orange or +violet pigment --- 91

91a Yellow pigment in excipulum and hypothecium K+ violet --- Hypoflavia andicola (Müll. Arg. ex Zahlbr.) Marbach
(THALLUS on moss, pale brown, squamulose, squamules to 5 mm wide, NIS, no prothallus, with norstictic acid, K+ red, UV-. APOTHECIA to 0.8(-0.9) mm diam., sessile; disc flat or convex, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum ca. 100 mu thick, carbonaceous with paler, yellow-pigmented, central layer, K+ violet, hypothecium pale with yellow pigment, K+ violet; hymenium ca. 70 mu, not inspersed; epithecium brown, K-. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, (17-)18-22 x 7-9 mu, 1-septate, thin septa, slightly subapically thickened walls, smooth or finely -sculptured. Pycnospores unknown. Andes, Chile, Venezuela.
91b Yellow pigment in excipulum and hypothecium K+ orange-yellow --- Hypoflavia velloziae (Kalb) Marbach
(THALLUS ochraceous white, small- to large-squamulose or granular, NIS, no prothallus, with norstictic acid, K+ yellow or orange, UV-. APOTHECIA 0.8-1.0 mm diam., sessile; disc concave or flat, non-pruinose, undulated; margin non-pruinose; excipulum ca. 70 mu thick, ectal carbonaceous, med. pale, with yellow pigment, K+ orange-yellow, hypothecium dark brown with yellow pigment, K+ orange-yellow; hymenium 60-85 mu, not inspersed; epithecium dark brown or back, K-. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, (17-)19-21(-23) x (7-)8-9(-10) mu, 1-(sometimes seemingly 3-)septate, thin septa, subapically thickened walls, fine to moderately sculptured. Pycnospores unknown. Brazil, 1000 m.

94a (88) Most ascospores less than 15 mu long --- 95
94b Most ascospores more than 15 mu long --- 119

95a Most asci polysporous --- 96
95b All asci with up to 8 ascospores --- 100

96a Asci with 30-50 spores --- Amandinea multispora (Kalb & Vezda) Marbach
(THALLUS white to pale grey, continuous, slightly warted, NIS, no prothallus, with 4,5-dichlorolichexanthone and indet. traces, K-, UV-. APOTHECIA to 0.3 mm diam., sessile; disc flat to convex, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum 20-30 mu thick, ectal dark brown, med. pale, hypothecium dark brown; hymenium 60-100 mu, not-inspersed; epithecium dark brown to olive-brown. PARAPHYSE tip caps strongly differentiated. ASCOSPORES 30-50/ascus, 7-9 x 3-4.5 mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, smooth. Pycnospores filiform, 18-27 x 0.6-0.8 mu. Tropical-subtropical (neotr., circumpacif.), 0-1000 m.
96b Asci with up to 16 spores --- 97

97a Thallus with red pigment inside --- Gassicurtia dodecaspora (Müll. Arg.) Marbach
(THALLUS grey, moderately to strongly warted, continuous, with red pigment, NIS, black prothallus, with chiodectonic and thiophanic acids, K+ yellow, UV-. APOTHECIA to 0.4 mm diam., sessile; disc flat to convex, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum ca. 50 mu thick, dark brown or carbonaceous, with red pigment, K+ violet dissolving, hypothecium dark brown or carbonaceous; hymenium ca. 50 mu, not inspersed; epithecium olive-brown, K-, C-. ASCOSPORES 8, 12, 16/ascus, (9-)10-12(-13) x 3.5-4.5 mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, moderately sculptured. Pycnospores unknown. Costa Rica (known from type only).
97b Thallus without red pigment --- 98

98a Thallus yellowish, UV+ orange (xanthones present) --- Amandinea melaxanthella (Nyl.) Marbach
(THALLUS yellow, slightly warted, NIS, no prothallus, with arthothelin and thuringione, K-, UV+ orange. APOTHECIA 0.1-0.2(-0.3) mm diam., sessile to immersed; disc flat/convex, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum 10-20 mu thick, ectal brown, med. brown, K- or K+ yellow, hypothecium brown; hymenium 50 mu, not inspersed; epithecium brown to olive-brown. ASCOSPORES (8-)16/ascus, 9-12(-13) x 4-5.5 mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, rather strongly sculptured. Pycnospores unknown. Pantropical & New Zealand, 100-450 m.
98b Thallus pale grey, UV- (xanthones absent) --- 99

99a Thallus K+ pale yellow (atranorin present) --- Amandinea endachroa (Malme) Marbach
(THALLUS white to grey, weakly warted, NIS, no prothallus, with atranorin, K- to + yellow, UV-. APOTHECIA to 0.25 mm diam., sessile to immersed; disc flat to convex, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum 20-25 mu thick, ectal dark brown, med. colourless, hypothecium colourless; hymenium 60-70 mu, not inspersed; epithecium olive-brown. ASCOSPORES 8(-16)/ascus, (8-)9-10(-11) x 4.5-6 mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, smooth. Pycnospores unknown. Pantropical.
99b Thallus K- (atranorin absent) --- Amandinea errata Marbach
(THALLUS grey, slightly warted, thin, NIS, no prothallus, without lichen substances, K-, UV-. APOTHECIA (0.25-)0.3-0.4 mm diam., sessile to immersed; disc flat to convex, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum 15-25 mu thick, ectal dark brown, med. pale brown, hypothecium brown; hymenium 60-70 mu, not inspersed; epithecium dark olive-brown. ASCOSPORES (8-)16/ascus, (19-)11-13(-15) x (4.5-)5-6 mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, rather coarsely sculptured. Pycnospores unknown. (Sub)tropical South America.

100a (95) Thallus and/or apothecia with red pigment inside --- 101
100b Thallus and apothecia without red pigment inside --- 104

101a Thallus C+ yellow, K- --- Gassicurtia coccinoides Marbach
(THALLUS white or yellowish grey, coarse-warted or granular, continuous, with red pigment partly exposed, NIS, black or no prothallus, with chiodectonic acid and boryquinon, K-, UV+ orange, C+ yellow. APOTHECIA to 0.4(-0.5) mm diam., sessile; disc flat, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum 30-35 mu thick, carbonaceous, K-, C+ yellow-green, dissolving, hypothecium carbonaceous with red pigment, K+ violet; hymenium ca. 60 mu, not inspersed, slightly yellowish, K+ more yellow; epithecium olivaceous, without epipsamma. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, 9-11(-12) x 3.5-4.5(-5) mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, moderately sculptured. Pycnospores clavate, 5.5-8 x 1.0 mu. Neotropical + Kenya, 250-780 m.
101b Thallus C-, K+ yellow --- 102

102a Thallus with lobaric acid, UV+ blue-violet --- Gassicurtia bellardii (Sipman) Marbach
(THALLUS white, low-squamulose, NIS, no prothallus, with lobaric and chiodectonic acids, K+ yellow, UV+ blue-violet, sometimes with red pigment. APOTHECIA to 0.3(-0.4) mm diam., sessile; disc concave or flat, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum ca. 60 mu thick, carbonaceous, K-, hypothecium carbonaceous; hymenium ca. 50 mu, not inspersed, slightly yellow, K+ more yellow; epithecium olivaceous or olive-brown, with weak granular epipsamma. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, (9-)10-12 x 5-6 mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin or apically slightly thickened walls, finely to moderately sculptured. Pycnospores unknown. Venezuela, 1200-1500 m.
102b Thallus without lobaric acid, UV + orange or red, or UV- --- 103

103a Thallus without baeomycesic and squamatic acid --- Gassicurtia coccinea Fée
(THALLUS grey to ochraceous or pale grey, strongly warted to granular or squamulose, with much red pigment often exposed, NIS, black prothallus, with chiodectonic and thiophanic acids, K+ yellow, UV+ orange to red. APOTHECIA to 0.4(-0.5) mm diam., sessile; disc flat, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum 25-35 mu thick, ectal carbonaceous, K-, C-, or with red pigment, K+ pink, hypothecium carbonaceous, often with red pigment; hymenium 50-60(-70) mu, not inspersed, pale yellowish, K+ more yellow; epithecium olive-, red-, dark brown, without epipsamma. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, 8-14(-15) x 4.5-5.5 mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, moderately sculptured. Pycnospores clavate, 7-9 x 1.0 mu. Neotropical, Kenya, 0-1400 m.
103b Thallus with baeomycesic and squamatic acid --- Gassicurtia acidobaeomyceta Marbach
(THALLUS white, fine-warted to granular, continuous or slightly fissured, partly with red pigment, NIS, no or black prothallus, with atranorin, chiodectonic, baeomycesic, squamatic, thiophanic and 3-O-methylthiophanic acids and arthothelin, K+ yellow, UV- or + red. APOTHECIA to 0.3(-0.4) mm diam., sessile; disc flat or convex, non- or grey-pruinose; margin non/pruinose?; excipulum 20-30 mu thick, K+ yellow, ectal dark brown or carbonaceous, med. thin paler, hypothecium dark brown or carbonaceous; hymenium 45-50 mu, not inspersed, slightly yellow, K+ more yellow; epithecium grey, golden-grey or olive-brown, with granular epipsamma dissolving in K. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, 10-13 x 4-5 mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, moderately sculptured. Pycnospores unknown. Brazil, Hawaii, 0-800 m.

104a (100) Thallus more or less yellowish, UV+ yellow or orange, C- (xanthones present) --- 105
104b Thallus more or less yellowish, UV+ dark orange, C+ red (rhizocarpic acid present) --- Buellia rhizocarpica Etayo, Giralt & Elix
(THALLUS yellowish, granular, continuous or slightly fissured, NIS, no or black prothallus?, with rhizocarpic acid and pulvinic acid derivative (major) with atranorin, epanorin, gyrophoric and alectorialic acids (minor), K+ purple, UV+ dark orange. APOTHECIA 0.3-0.4(-0.5) mm diam., adnate; disc flat or subconvex, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum XX mu thick (aethalea-type), K+ yellowish green, ectal dark brown or carbonaceous, med. paler, hypothecium dark brown; hymenium 60-80 mu, not inspersed, colourless; epithecium dark brown to olivaceous black, without granular epipsamma. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, (9-)10-12(-14) x (3-)3.5-4.5)-6) mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, smooth. Pycnospores short bacilliform to almost globose, 2-4.5 x 1.5-2 mu. Mexico, 3950 m.
104c Thallus pale grey, UV- (xanthones and rhizocarpic acid absent) --- 108

105a Excipulum with dark brown outer and paler inner layer, well separated from hypothecium --- 106
105b Excipulum dark brown to carbonaceous throughout, confluent with hypothecium --- 107

106a Thallus UV+ pink --- Amandinea diorista (Nyl.) Marbach
(THALLUS grey, weakly warted, NIS, no prothallus, with 4,5-dichlorolichexanthone, K-, UV+ pink. APOTHECIA 0.3-0.35 mm diam., sessile; disc flat to convex, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum 10-15 mu thick, ectal dark brown, med. pale brown, hypothecium pale- to dark brown; hymenium 60 mu, not inspersed; epithecium dark-olivaceous brown. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, (10-)11-13(-14) x 4.5-5.5 mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, rather coarsely sculptured. Pycnospores unknown. Pantropical.
106b Thallus UV+ orange --- Amandinea diorista var. hypopelidna (Stirton) Marbach & Kalb
(THALLUS greenish to yellow, smooth to slightly warted, NIS, no prothallus, with arthothelin, thuringione etc., K+ yellow, UV+ orange. APOTHECIA 0.3-0.4 mm diam., sessile to immersed; disc flat to convex, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum 10-15 mu thick, ectal dark brown, med. pale brown, hypothecium pale- to dark brown; hymenium 60 mu, not inspersed; epithecium dark to olivaceous brown. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, (19-)11-13(-14) x 4.5-5.5 mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, rather coarsely sculptured. Pycnospores unknown. Palaeotropical coasts.
106c Thallus UV+ red --- Gassicurtia acidobaeomyceta Marbach
(THALLUS white, fine-warted to granular, continuous or slightly fissured, partly with red pigment, NIS, no or black prothallus, with atranorin, chiodectonic, baeomycesic, squamatic, thiophanic and 3-O-methylthiophanic acids and arthothelin, K+ yellow, UV- or + red. APOTHECIA to 0.3(-0.4) mm diam., sessile; disc flat or convex, non- or grey-pruinose; margin non/pruinose?; excipulum 20-30 mu thick, K+ yellow, ectal dark brown or carbonaceous, med. thin paler, hypothecium dark brown or carbonaceous; hymenium 45-50 mu, not inspersed, slightly yellow, K+ more yellow; epithecium grey, golden-grey or olive-brown, with granular epipsamma dissolving in K. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, 10-13 x 4-5 mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, moderately sculptured. Pycnospores unknown. Brazil, Hawaii, 0-800 m.

107a Thallus UV+ orange, with arthothelin and thuringione --- Amandinea melaxanthella (Nyl.) Marbach
(THALLUS yellow, slightly warted, NIS, no prothallus, with arthothelin and thuringione, K-, UV+ orange. APOTHECIA 0.1-0.2(-0.3) mm diam., sessile to immersed; disc flat/convex, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum 10-20 mu thick, ectal brown, med. brown, K- or K+ yellow, hypothecium brown; hymenium 50 mu, not inspersed; epithecium brown to olive-brown. ASCOSPORES (8-)16/ascus, 9-12(-13) x 4-5.5 mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, rather strongly sculptured. Pycnospores unknown. pantropical-New Zealand, 100-450 m.
107b Thallus UV+ yellow, with lichexanthone, barbatic and obtusatic acids --- Gassicurtia catasema (Tuck.) Marbach
(THALLUS white, grey, ochraceous, granular or isidioid-granular, granules ca. 80-150 mu diam., black or no prothallus, with barbatic and obtusatic acids and lichexanthone, K+ yellow, UV+ yellow. APOTHECIA 0.3-0.5(-0.6) mm diam., sessile; disc flat, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum 25-35 mu thick, carbonaceous, K+ yellow, orange sol., hypothecium carbonaceous; hymenium (50-)60-70 mu, not inspersed, pale yellow, K+ more yellow; epithecium olivaceous, olive-brown, without epipsamma. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, (9-)11-13 x 4.5-5.5(-6) mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, moderately sculptured. Pycnospores clavate, 8-10 x 0.8-1.0 mu. Neotropics, Africa, Hawaii, 0-1450 m.

108a (104) Thallus K+ pale yellow (atranorin present) --- 109
108b Thallus K- (atranorin absent) --- 115

109a Excipulum with hyaline inner or central layer --- 110
109b Excipulum dark brown to carbonaceous throughout or with slightly paler inner layer --- 111

110a Excipulum with hyaline central layer; ascospores with thin septa and thin apical walls --- "Buellia" circumpallida H. Magn. (syn. Endohyalina circumpallida (H. Magn.) Marbach)
(THALLUS white, pale grey, slightly to moderately warted, continuous to areolate, NIS, no prothallus, with atranorin, K+ yellow, UV-. APOTHECIA 0.3-0.7(-0.9) mm diam., sessile to moderately immersed; disc flat or convex, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum 40-60 mu thick, carbonaceous with hyaline, below open, central layer, K-, hypothecium carbonaceous; hymenium 45-60 mu, not inspersed; epithecium dark-, olive- or orange-brown. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, 10-14 x 4-5 mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, very finely sculptured. Pycnospores unknown. Neotropics, Hawaii, 0-1000 m.
110b Excipulum with hyaline inner layer; ascospores with slightly thickened septa and thickened apical walls --- Endohyalina erinacea (Nyl.) Giralt, Van den Boom & Elix (syn. E. rappii (Imshaug ex R.C. Harris) Marbach)
(THALLUS grey, pale- or greenish grey, strongly warted to granular, continuous, NIS, no prothallus, with atranorin and diploicin, K- or + pale yellow, UV-. APOTHECIA 0.3-0.4 mm diam., sessile or moderately immersed; disc flat or convex, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum 15-20 mu thick, K-, ectal dark brown or carbonaceous, med. wide hyaline, hypothecium pale- or dark brown; hymenium 50-60 mu, not inspersed; epithecium dark-, olive- or yellow-brown, K-. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, 10-13 x 4-5 mu, 1-septate, ca. 2 mu thick septa, thick, apically thickened walls, smooth. Pycnospores unknown. Brazil, Florida, 0-560 m.

111a Ascospores mostly more than 13 mu long and 6 mu wide --- 112
111b Ascospores mostly less than 13 mu long and 6 mu wide --- 113

112a Epithecium dark brown, K- --- Amandinea submontana Marbach
(THALLUS white to olive-brown, smooth, continuous, NIS, no prothallus, with atranorin or indet. traces, K+ yellow or K-, UV-. APOTHECIA 0.4-0.6 mm diam., sessile; disc flat, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum ca. 40 mu thick; K-, ectal carbonaceous, med. pale brown, hypothecium dark brown to carbonaceous; hymenium 100 mu, not inspersed; epithecium dark brown, K-. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, 14-16(-17) x 7-8(-9) mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, often slightly curved, coarsely sculptured. Pycnospores filiform, 14-17 x 0.8 mu. Subtropical(-tropical) in America (and Africa), 150-2600 m.
112b Epithecium green to dark green, K+ grass green or K- --- Baculifera micromera (Vainio) Marbach
(THALLUS white to grey, slightly warted, continuous to areolate, NIS, no prothallus, with atranorin, K+ yellow, UV-. APOTHECIA 0.2-0.4 mm diam., sessile; disc flat to convex, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum 25-30 mu thick, K-, ectal dark brown, med. paler than hypothecium, hypothecium dark brown; hymenium 60-80 mu, not inspersed; epithecium green to black-green, mostly K+ grass-green, or K-. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, (13-)14-16(-17) x (5.5-)6-7 mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin or subapicaly slightly thickened walls, rather strongly sculptured. Pycnospores bacillar, 4-5 x 1 mu. Neotropical + Africa, 250-1400 m.

113a Hypothecium colourless --- Amandinea endachroa (Malme) Marbach
(THALLUS white to grey, weakly warted, NIS, no prothallus, with atranorin, K- to + yellow, UV-. APOTHECIA to 0.25 mm diam., sessile to immersed; disc flat to convex, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum 20-25 mu thick, ectal dark brown, med. colourless, hypothecium colourless; hymenium 60-70 mu, not inspersed; epithecium olive-brown. ASCOSPORES 8(-16)/ascus, (8-)9-10(-11) x 4.5-6 mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, smooth. Pycnospores unknown. Pantropical.
113b Hypothecium dark brown to carbonaceous --- 114

114a Hymenium 60-80 mu; atranorin only major substance --- Amandinea brugierae (Vainio) Marbach
(THALLUS white to grey, smooth to warted, NIS, no prothallus, with atranorin, K+ yellow, UV-. APOTHECIA 0.35-0.5 mm diam., sessile; disc flat to convex, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum 30-40 mu thick, ectal dark brown, med. pale brown, hypothecium dark brown; hymenium 60-80 mu, not inspersed; epithecium brown to olivaceous. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, 11-13(-14) x (4.5-)5-6(-6.5) mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, rather coarsely sculptured. Pycnospores unknown. Pantropical.
114b Hymenium 100 mu; various major substances --- Gassicurtia acidobaeomyceta Marbach
(THALLUS white, fine-warted to granular, continuous or slightly fissured, partly with red pigment, NIS, no or black prothallus, with atranorin, chiodectonic, baeomycesic, squamatic, thiophanic and 3-O-methylthiophanic acids and arthothelin, K+ yellow, UV- or + red. APOTHECIA to 0.3(-0.4) mm diam., sessile; disc flat or convex, non- or grey-pruinose; margin non/pruinose?; excipulum 20-30 mu thick, K+ yellow, ectal dark brown or carbonaceous, med. thin paler, hypothecium dark brown or carbonaceous; hymenium 45-50 mu, not inspersed, slightly yellow, K+ more yellow; epithecium grey, golden-grey or olive-brown, with granular epipsamma dissolving in K. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, 10-13 x 4-5 mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, moderately sculptured. Pycnospores unknown. Brazil, Hawaii, 0-800 m.

115a (108) Thallus UV+ blue-violet (lobaric acid present) --- Gassicurtia bellardii (Sipman) Marbach
(THALLUS white, low-squamulose, NIS, no prothallus, with lobaric and chiodectonic acids, K+ yellow, UV+ blue-violet, sometimes with red pigment. APOTHECIA to 0.3(-0.4) mm diam., sessile; disc concave or flat, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum ca. 60 mu thick, carbonaceous, K-, hypothecium carbonaceous; hymenium ca. 50 mu, not inspersed, slightly yellow, K+ more yellow; epithecium olivaceous or olive-brown, with weak granular epipsamma. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, (9-)10-12 x 5-6 mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin or apically slightly thickened walls, finely to moderately sculptured. Pycnospores unknown. Venezuela, 1200-1500 m.
115b Thallus UV- (lobaric acid absent) --- 116

116a Most ascospores less than 13 mu long --- 117
116b Most ascospores more than 13 mu long --- 118

117a Hypothecium hyaline to pale brown --- Amandinea errata Marbach
(THALLUS grey, slightly warted, thin, NIS, no prothallus, without lichen substances, K-, UV-. APOTHECIA (0.25-)0.3-0.4 mm diam., sessile to immersed; disc flat to convex, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum 15-25 mu thick, ectal dark brown, med. pale brown, hypothecium hyaline to pale brown; hymenium 60-70 mu, not inspersed; epithecium dark olive-brown. ASCOSPORES (8-)16/ascus, (10-)11-13(-15) x (4.5-)5-6 mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, rather coarsely sculptured. Pycnospores unknown. (Sub)tropical South America.
117b Hypothecium dark brown to carbonaceous --- Buellia badia (Fr.) A. Massal. (syn.: Amandinea turgescens (Nyl.) Marbach; Monerolechia badia (Fr.) Kalb
(THALLUS dark grey-green, "furfuraceous-
crustose", NIS, no prothallus, with confluentic acid, K-, UV-. APOTHECIA to 0.3(-0.4) mm diam., sessile to moderately immersed; disc flat, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum ca. 40 mu thick, K-, ectal red brown to carbonaceous, med. pale brown to colourless, hypothecium dark red-brown to carbonaceous; hymenium ca. 60 mu, not inspersed; epithecium olive-brown to black, K-. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, 10-12(-13) x (6-)7-8 mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, often slightly curved, smooth. Pycnospores unknown. Subtropical N and S America, Africa, Australia.

118a Ascospores ca. 13-14 mu long, not curved --- Amandinea extenuata (Müll. Arg.) Marbach
(THALLUS grey to ochraceous, slightly warted, NIS, no prothallus, without lichen substances, K-, UV-. APOTHECIA 0.3-0.5 mm diam., sessile to immersed; disc flat, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum 15-20 mu thick, ectal dark brown, med. pale, hypothecium yellow to brown to dark brown; hymenium 60-80 mu, not inspersed; epithecium dark brown. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, (11-)13-14(-16) x (6-)6.5-8 mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, finely to rather coarsely sculptured. Pycnospores unknown. Pantropical.
118b Ascospores ca. 14-16 mu long, often slightly curved --- Amandinea submontana Marbach
(THALLUS white to olive-brown, smooth, continuous, NIS, no prothallus, with atranorin or traces, K+ yellow or K-, UV-. APOTHECIA 0.4-0.6 mm diam., sessile; disc flat, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum ca. 40 mu thick; K-, ectal carbonaceous, med. pale brown, hypothecium dark brown to carbonaceous; hymenium 100 mu, not inspersed; epithecium dark brown, K-. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, 14-16(-17) x 7-8(-9) mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, often slightly curved, coarsely sculptured. Pycnospores filiform, 14-17 x 0.8 mu. Subtropical(-tropical) in America (and Africa), 150-2600 m.

119a (94) Most ascospores more than 20 mu long --- 120
119b Most ascospores less than 20 mu long --- 127

120a Most ascospores more than 27 mu long --- 121
120b Most ascospores less than 27 mu long --- 122

121a Ascospores more than 12 mu wide --- Amandinea megaspora Marbach
(THALLUS white/grey, smooth, NIS, black prothallus, with atranorin, K+ yellow, UV-. APOTHECIA 0.6-0.9 mm diam., sessile; disc concave to convex, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum 40-50 mu thick, ectal carbonaceous, med. pale brown, hypothecium brown; hymenium 140-200 mu, not inspersed; epithecium black to olivaceous brown, K-. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, 28-35 x (12-)14-18 mu, 1-septate, thin, pored septa, thin walls, +/-curved, rather strongly sculptured. Pycnospores unknown. Paramo, 3300-4500 m.
121b Ascospores less than 12 mu wide --- Tetramelas thiopolizus (Nyl.) Giralt & Clerc (syn. Tetramelas regiomontana Marbach)
(THALLUS white or grey, smooth/warted/areolate?, NIS, no prothallus, without lichen substances, K- or + pale yellowish, UV-. APOTHECIA to 0.5 mm diam., sessile or slightly immersed; disc flat to strongly convex, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum ca. 60 mu thick, carbonaceous, K- or + pale yellowish dissolving, hypothecium carbonaceous; hymenium ca. 100 mu, not inspersed; epithecium dark brown to black, K-. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, (25-)27-29(-31) x (9-)10-11 mu, 1-septate, thin septa, weakly subapically thickened walls, finely sculptured. Pycnospores unknown. South America (Andes from Venezuela to Magellanes), Africa; in tropics above ca. 3500 m.

122a Hypothecium pale brown, much paler than excipulum --- 123
122b Hypothecium dark brown to carbonaceous, as dark as the excipulum --- 125

123a Thallus UV+ pink (xanthone present) --- Amandinea mediospora Marbach
(THALLUS white, slightly warted, NIS, no prothallus, with 6-O-methylarthothelin, K- or + pale yellow, UV+ pink. APOTHECIA 0.5-0.8 mm diam., sessile; disc flat, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum 40-70 mu thick, ectal blackish brown, med. pale, hypothecium pale brown; hymenium 100-110 mu, not inspersed; epithecium dark brown. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, (17-)22-26(-28) x 10-12 mu, often curved, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, coarsely sculptured. Pycnospores filiform, 23-30 x 0.8-1.1 mu. Northern Andes 2700-2850 m.
123b Thallus UV- (xanthones absent) --- 124

124a Thallus K+ pale yellow (atranorin present, fumarprotocetraric acid absent) --- Amandinea subduplicata (Vainio) Marbach
(THALLUS grey to white or ochraceous, smooth to moderately warted, continuous to slightly warted, NIS, no prothallus, with atranorin, K+ yellow, UV-. APOTHECIA 0.4-0.7(-0.9) mm diam., sessile to moderately immersed; disc concave to flat, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum 50-70 mu thick, K-, ectal pale- to dark brown, darker than hypothecium, med. hyaline, hypothecium pale brown; hymenium 80-120 mu, not-inspersed; epithecium dark brown, olive-brown to red-brown or black, K-. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, (17-)19-21(-23) x 7-9 mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, coarsely sculptured, often slightly curved. Pycnospores filiform, 24-27 x 0.6-0.8 mu (V-curved?). Pantropical-subtropical, mainly Neotropical, 700-2600 m.
124b Thallus K+ brownish yellow (atranorin absent, fumarprotocetraric acid present) --- Chrismofulvea omalia Marbach
(THALLUS ochraceous grey, furfuraceous, diffusely sorediate, no prothallus, with fumarprotocetraric acid, K+ dark yellow, UV-. APOTHECIA to 0.3 mm diam., sessile; disc flat to strongly convex, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum ca. 25 mu thick, brown, K-, hypothecium pale- or dark brown; hymenium ca. 80 mu, not inspersed; epithecium brown. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, (20-)21-23(-24) x 8-9 mu, 1-septate, thin or juv. thick septa, thin walls, smooth. Pycnospores unknown. Costa Rica, ca. 2600 m.

125a Excipulum with darker outer and paler inner layer; fumarprotocetraric acid absent --- 126
125b Excipulum uniformly brown; fumarprotocetraric acid present --- Chrismofulvea omalia Marbach
(THALLUS ochraceous grey, furfuraceous, diffusely sorediate, no prothallus, with fumarprotocetraric acid, K+ dark yellow, UV-. APOTHECIA to 0.3 mm diam., sessile; disc flat to strongly convex, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum ca. 25 mu thick, brown, K-, hypothecium pale- or dark brown; hymenium ca. 80 mu, not inspersed; epithecium brown. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, (20-)21-23(-24) x 8-9 mu, 1-septate, thin or juv. thick septa, thin walls, smooth. Pycnospores unknown. Costa Rica, ca. 2600 m.

126a Thallus K-, atranorin absent --- Amandinea montana (H. Magn.) Marbach
(THALLUS olive-brown, thick, smooth, continuous, NIS, no prothallus, with myeloconin D1, K-, UV-. APOTHECIA 0.5-0.6 mm diam., sessile to moderately immersed; disc flat, non-pruinose, slightly reddish; margin non-pruinose; excipulum 50-60 mu thick, ectal carbonaceous, med. pale brown, hypothecium dark brown to carbonaceous; hymenium 100 mu, not inspersed; epithecium red-brown, dark brown to olive-golden. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, (17-)20-22 x (9-)10-11(-13) mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, dark olive-brown, often slightly curved, coarsely sculptured. Pycnospores unknown. Africa-India, 2000-3000 m.
126a Thallus K+ pale yellow, atranorin present --- Amandinea natalensis (Vainio) Marbach
(THALLUS grey to greenish grey, slightly warted, slightly fissured, NIS, no prothallus, with atranorin, K-, UV-. APOTHECIA to 0.7 mm diam., sessile; disc flat to convex, non-pruinose, slightly reddish; margin non-pruinose; excipulum ca. 40 mu thick, ectal red-brown to carbonaceous, med. slightly paler, hypothecium red-brown; hymenium ca. 120 mu, not/inspersed?; epithecium red-brown to yellow-brown. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, 20-23 x 8-10 mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls or weak subapical thickening, finely sculptured. Pycnospores filiform, 15-18 x 1.0 mu. South Africa (known from type only).

127a (119) Hypothecium pale brown --- 128
127b Hypothecium dark brown to carbonaceous --- 129

128a Ascospores ca. 19-21 mu long --- Amandinea subduplicata (Vainio) Marbach
(THALLUS grey to white or ochraceous, smooth to moderately warted, continuous to slightly warted, NIS, no prothallus, with atranorin, K+ yellow, UV-. APOTHECIA 0.4-0.7(-0.9) mm diam., sessile to moderately immersed; disc concave to flat, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum 50-70 mu thick, K-, ectal pale- to dark brown, darker than hypothecium, med. hyaline, hypothecium pale brown; hymenium 80-120 mu, not-inspersed; epithecium dark brown, olive-brown to red-brown or black, K-. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, (17-)19-21(-23) x 7-9 mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, coarsely sculptured, often slightly curved. Pycnospores filiform, 24-27 x 0.6-0.8 mu (V-curved?). Pantropical-subtropical, mainly Neotropical, 700-2600 m.
128b Ascospores ca. 16-17 mu long --- Amandinea xylographella (Nyl.) Marbach
(THALLUS ochraceous, slightly to moderately warted, continuous, NIS, no prothallus, with traces, K-, UV-. APOTHECIA 0.2-0.3 mm diam., sessile to immersed; disc concave to flat, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum 20-30 mu thick, ectal dark brown, med. pale, hypothecium pale brown; hymenium ca. 80 mu, not inspersed; epithecium dark olivaceous to brown. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, (15-)16-17 x (7-)8-9 mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, coarsely sculptured. Pycnospores unknown. Pantropical-subtropical, 1100-1850 m.

129a Apothecia not over 0.1 mm wide --- Amandinea incrustans (J. Steiner in Zahlbr.) Marbach
(THALLUS ochraceous grey, thick, NIS, no prothallus, without lichen substances, K-, UV-. APOTHECIA to 0.1 mm diam., sessile; disc flat, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum ca. 60 mu thick, ectal blackish brown, med. pale brown, hypothecium dark brown; hymenium ca. 100 mu, not inspersed; epithecium brown. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, (14-)15-16(-18) x 9-10 mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, coarsely sculptured. Pycnospores unknown. Namibia.
129b Apothecia to ca. 0.5 mm wide --- 130

130a Ascospores ca. 17-19 mu long --- Baculifera xylophila (Malme) Marbach
(THALLUS white or grey, smooth to slightly warted, continuous to slightly fissured, NIS, no prothallus, with indet. depsid, K-, UV-. APOTHECIA 0.4-0.5 mm diam., sessile to slightly immersed; disc flat, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum 15-40 mu thick, dark brown to carbonaceous, K-; hypothecium dark brown or carbonaceous; hymenium 70-120 mu, not inspersed; epithecium olive-green to dark brown, often K+ more yellow-green. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, (15-)17-19(-22) x 6-8 mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin or slightly subapically thickened walls, finely sculptured. Pycnospores bacillar, 9-10 x 1.0-1.1 mu. Brazil - Uruguay, Hawaii, 0-900 m.
130b Most ascospores less than 17 mu long --- 131

131a Ascospores 10-12 mu wide --- Amandinea langloisii Imshaug ex Marbach
(THALLUS dark greenish grey, smooth/warted/areolate, NIS, no prothallus, without lichen substances, K-, UV-. APOTHECIA to 0.4(-0.5) mm diam., sessile; disc flat to convex, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum ca. 30 mu thick, ectal dark brown, med. brown, hypothecium dark brown; hymenium ca. 100 mu, not inspersed; epithecium dark brown. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, 15-18 x 10-12 mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, very coarsely sculptured. Pycnospores unknown. Florida (known from type only).
131b Ascospores less than 9 mu wide --- 132

132a Ascospores 7-8 mu wide --- 133
132b Ascospores 5-7 mu wide --- 134

133a Thallus UV+ orange, lichexanthone present --- Amandinea leucomela (Imshaug) P. May & Sheard
(THALLUS ochraceous, smooth, NIS, no prothallus, with 6-O-methylarthothelin and lichexanthone, K-, UV+ orange. APOTHECIA to 0.4 mm diam., sessile; disc concave/flat/convex, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum ca. 40 mu thick, ectal blackish brown, med. pale brown, hypothecium dark brown to blackish; hymenium 60-80 mu, not inspersed; epithecium dark brown. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, 14-16 x 7-8 mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, coarsely sculptured. Pycnospores unknown. Jamaica.
133b Thallus UV., lichexanthone absent --- Amandinea submontana Marbach
(THALLUS white to olive-brown, smooth, continuous, NIS, no prothallus, with atranorin or traces, K+ yellow or K-, UV-. APOTHECIA 0.4-0.6 mm diam., sessile; disc flat, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum ca. 40 mu thick; K-, ectal carbonaceous, med. pale brown, hypothecium dark brown to carbonaceous; hymenium 100 mu, not inspersed; epithecium dark brown, K-. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, 14-16(-17) x 7-8(-9) mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, often slightly curved, coarsely sculptured. Pycnospores filiform, 14-17 x 0.8 mu. Subtropical(-tropical) in America (and Africa), 150-2600 m.

134a Epithecium green to black-green, often K+ grass-green --- Baculifera micromera (Vainio) Marbach
(THALLUS white to grey, slightly warted, continuous to areolate, NIS, no prothallus, with atranorin, K+ yellow, UV-. APOTHECIA 0.2-0.4 mm diam., sessile; disc flat to convex, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum 25-30 mu thick, K-, ectal dark brown, med. paler than hypothecium, hypothecium dark brown; hymenium 60-80 mu, not inspersed; epithecium green to black-green, mostly K+ grass-green, or K-. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, (13-)14-16(-17) x (5.5-)6-7 mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin or subapicaly slightly thickened walls, rather strongly sculptured. Pycnospores bacillar, 4-5 x 1 mu. Neotropical + Africa, 250-1400 m.
134b Epithecium red-, dark- or orangerusty-brown, K- --- 135

135a Apothecia flat to convex; fumarprotocetraric acid present --- Chrismofulvea rubifaciens (R.C. Harris) Marbach
(THALLUS yellowish white, granular, NIS, no or dark grey prothallus, with fumarprotocetraric and thiophanic acids and traces, K+ dark yellow, UV-. APOTHECIA to 0.4(-0.5) mm diam., sessile or slightly immersed; disc flat to convex, non-pruinose; margin non-pruinose; excipulum ca. 25 mu thick, ectal dark brown, med. slightly paler, K-, hypothecium dark brown; hymenium ca. 70 mu, not inspersed; epithecium red-brown. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, 15-17(-19) x 5-6.5 mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, smooth to finely sculptured. Pycnospores unknown. Florida, Brazil.
135b Apothecia concave to flat; fumarprotocetraric acid absent --- Gassicurtia vaccinii (Vainio) Marbach, Elix & Kalb
(THALLUS white, grey or ochraceous, granular-wrinkled, NIS, no prothallus, with thiophanic and 3-O-methylthiophanic acids, K- or + yellowish, UV- or + pale pink. APOTHECIA 0.25-0.5(-0.6) mm diam., sessile; disc concave or flat, non-pruinose, sometimes weakly red-brown; margin non-pruinose; excipulum 40-70 mu thick, K- or + yellowish, ectal carbonaceous, med. pale brown, hypothecium carbonaceous; hymenium 50-60 mu, not inspersed, K-; epithecium red-, dark- or orangerusty-brown, K-. ASCOSPORES 8/ascus, (13-)15-16(-17) x 5.5-6.5 mu, 1-septate, thin septa, thin walls, moderately to coarsely sculptured. Pycnospores unknown. Pantropical, 900-3200 m.

DIRECTIONS FOR USE / key
1. Thallus chemistry is best determined by TLC or HPLC. Spot tests and fluorescense may be misleading, because the concentration of the substances varies and low concentration may cause negative reactions.
2. The pruina of the apothecia is best seen on the disc of young apothecia; in large apothecia it may be completely abraded.
3. For the ascospore characters grey to darkgrey, full-grown spores have to be investigated. The ascospores undergo strong morphological changes during their development, and care should be taken to examine the right stages. Dark brown spores are generally over-aged and have lost much of the spore wall differentiation. Because they are very resistent, they are often the most numerous, and the only spores left in decaying apothecia.

References
Bungartz, F. & Nash, T.H. III 2004: Buellia turgescens is synonymous with Buellia badia and must not be included in Amandinea. - The Bryologist 107(1): 21-27.
Etayo, J., Giralt, M. & Elix, J.A. 2010: Buellia rhizocarpia, a new corticolous species from Mexico. - Lichenologist 42(6): 723-726.
Giralt, M. & Clerc, P. 2011: Tetramelas thiopolizus comb. nov. with a key to all known species of Tetramelas. - The Lichenologist 43(5): 417-425.
Giralt, M., Boom, P.P.G. van den & Elix, J.A. 2010: Endohyalina, the genus in the Physciaceae to accommodate the species of the Rinodina ericina-group. - Mycological Progress 9(1): 37-48.
Marbach, B. 2000. Corticole und lignicole Arten der Flechtengattung Buellia sensu lato in den Subtropen und Tropen. Bibliotheca Lichenologica 74: 1-384.
Marbach, B/ Wirth, V 2000: Stigmatochroma sorediata (lichenisierte Ascomyceten, Physciaceae), eine neue corticole Art aus Ostpolynesien [Stigmatochroma sorediata (lichenized Ascomycetes, Physciaceae), a new corticolous species from eastern Polynesia]. - Stuttgarter Beitrage zur Naturkunde, Serie A 619: 1-5.
Nordin, A. 2000. Taxonomy and phylogeny of Buellia species with pluriseptate spores (Lecanorales, Ascomycotina). Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 33(1): 1-117.

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