7.1. The application of names of taxa of the rank of family or below is determined by means of nomenclatural types (types of names of taxa). The application of names of taxa in the higher ranks is also determined by means of types when the names are ultimately based on generic names (see Art. 10.7).
7.2. A nomenclatural type (typus) is that element to which the name of a taxon is permanently attached, whether as a correct name or as a synonym. The nomenclatural type is not necessarily the most typical or representative element of a taxon.
7.3. A new name published as an avowed substitute (nomen novum) for an older name is typified by the type of the older name (see Art. 33.2; but see Art. 33 Note 2).
Ex. 1. Myrcia lucida McVaugh (1969) was published as a nomen novum for M. laevis O. Berg (1862), an illegitimate homonym of M. laevis G. Don (1832). The type of M. lucida is therefore the type of M. laevis O. Berg (non G. Don), namely, Spruce 3502.
7.4. A new name formed from a previously published legitimate name (stat. nov., comb. nov.) is, in all circumstances, typified by the type of the basionym, even though it may have been applied erroneously to a taxon now considered not to include that type (but see Art. 48.1 and 59.6).
Ex. 2. Pinus mertensiana Bong. was transferred to the genus Tsuga by Carrière, who, however, as is evident from his description, erroneously applied the new combination T. mertensiana to another species of Tsuga, namely T. heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg. The combination Tsuga mertensiana (Bong.) Carrière must not be applied to T. heterophylla but must be retained for P. mertensiana when that species is placed in Tsuga; the citation in parentheses (under Art. 49) of the name of the original author, Bongard, indicates the type of the name.
Ex. 3. Iridaea splendens (Setch. & N. L. Gardner) Papenf., I. cordata var. splendens (Setch. & N. L. Gardner) I. A. Abbott (in Syesis 4: 55. 1972), and Gigartina cordata var. splendens (Setch. & N. L. Gardner) D. H. Kim (in Nova Hedwigia 27: 40. 1976) all have the same type as their basionym, Iridophycus splendens Setch. & N. L. Gardner, namely, Gardner 7781 (UC No. 539565).
7.5. A name which, under Art. 52, was illegitimate when published is either automatically typified by the type of the name which ought to have been adopted under the rules, or by a different type designated or definitely indicated by the author of the illegitimate name. Automatic typification does not apply to names sanctioned under Art. 15.
7.6. The type of an autonym is the same as that of the name from which it is derived.
7.7. A name validly published by reference to a previously and effectively published description or diagnosis (Art. 32.1(c)) is to be typified by an element selected from the context of the validating description or diagnosis, unless the validating author has definitely designated a different type (but see Art. 10.2). However, the type of a name of a taxon assigned to a group with a nomenclatural starting-point later than 1753 (see Art. 13.1) is to be determined in accordance with the indication or descriptive and other matter accompanying its valid publication (see 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45).
Ex. 4. Since the name Adenanthera bicolor Moon (1824) is validated solely by reference to Rumphius (Herb. Amboin. 3: t. 112. 1743), the type of the name, in the absence of the specimen from which it was figured, is the illustration referred to. It is not the specimen, at Kew, collected by Moon and labelled "Adenanthera bicolor", since Moon did not definitely designate the latter as the type.
Ex. 5. Echium lycopsis L. (Fl. Angl.: 12. 1754) was published without a description or diagnosis but with reference to Ray (Syn. Meth. Stirp. Brit., ed. 3: 227. 1724), in which a "Lycopsis" species was discussed with no description or diagnosis but with citation of earlier references, including Bauhin (Pinax: 255. 1623). The accepted validating description of E. lycopsis is that of Bauhin, and the type must be chosen from the context of his work. Consequently the Sherard specimen in the Morison herbarium (OXF), selected by Klotz (in Wiss. Z. Martin-Luther-Univ. Halle-Wittenberg Math.-Naturwiss. Reihe 9: 375-376. 1960), although probably consulted by Ray, is not eligible as type. The first acceptable choice is that of the illustration, cited by both Ray and Bauhin, of "Echii altera species" in Dodonaeus (Stirp. Hist. Pempt.: 620. 1583), suggested by Gibbs (in Lagascalia 1: 60-61. 1971) and formally made by Stearn (in Ray Soc. Publ. 148, Introd.: 65. 1973).
7.8. Typification of names adopted in one of the works specified in Art. 13.1(d), and thereby sanctioned (Art. 15), may be effected in the light of anything associated with the name in that work.
7.9. The typification of names of form-genera of plant fossils (Art. 3.3), of fungal anamorphs (Art. 59), and of any other analogous genera or lower taxa does not differ from that indicated above.
Note 1. See also Art. 59 for details regarding typification of names in certain pleomorphic fungi.
7.10. For purposes of priority (Art. 9.13 and 10.5), designation of a type is achieved only by effective publication (Art. 29, 30, 31).
7.11. For purposes of priority (Art. 9.13 and 10.5), designation of a type is achieved only if the type is definitely accepted as such by the typifying author, and if the type element is clearly indicated by direct citation including the term "type" or an equivalent.
Ex. 6. Chlorosarcina Gerneck (1907) originally comprised two species, C. minor and C. elegans. Vischer (1933) transferred the former to Chlorosphaera G. A. Klebs and retained the latter in Chlorosarcina. He did not, however, use the term "type" or an equivalent, so that his action does not constitute typification of Chlorosarcina. The first to designate a type, as "LT.", was Starr (in ING Card No. 16528, Nov 1962), who selected Chlorosarcina elegans.
*Ex. 7. The phrase "standard species" as used by Hitchcock & Green (in Anon., Nomencl. Prop. Brit. Botanists: 110-199. 1929) is now treated as equivalent to "type", and hence type designations in this work are acceptable.
7A.1. It is strongly recommended that the material on which
the name of a taxon is based, especially the holotype, be deposited
in a public herbarium or other public collection with a policy
of giving bona fide botanists open access to deposited
material, and that it be scrupulously conserved.