37.1. Publication on or after 1 January 1958 of the name of a new taxon of the rank of genus or below is valid only when the type of the name is indicated
(see Art. 7, 8,
9, 10; but see
Art. H.9 Note 1 for the names of certain hybrids).
37.2. For the name of a new species or infraspecific taxon, indication of the type as required by Art. 37.1 can be achieved by reference to an entire gathering, or part thereof, even if it consists of two or more specimens as defined in
Art. 8 (see also Art. 37.5).
Ex. 1. The protologue of Laurentia frontidentata E. Wimm. (in Engler, Pflanzenr. 108: 855. 1968) includes the type statement
"E. Esterhuysen No. 17070! Typus - Pret., Bol." The name is validly published because a single gathering is cited, despite the mention of duplicate specimens in two different herbaria.
37.3. For the name of a new genus or subdivision of a genus, reference (direct or indirect) to one species name only, or the citation of the holotype or lectotype of one previously or simultaneously published species name only, even if that element is not explicitly designated as type, is acceptable as indication of the type (see also
Art. 22.6; but see Art. 37.5). Similarly, for the name of a new species or infraspecific taxon, mention of a single specimen or gathering (Art. 37.2) or illustration (when permitted by Art. 37.4), even if that element is not explicitly designated as type, is acceptable as indication of the type (but see Art. 37.5).
Ex. 2. "Baloghia pininsularis" was published by Guillaumin (in Mém. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat., B, Bot. 8: 260. 1962) with two cited gatherings:
Baumann 13813 and Baumann 13823. As the author failed to designate one of them as the type, he did not validly publish the name. Valid publication was effected in McPherson & Tirel (in Fl. Nouv.-Caléd. 14: 58. 1987), who wrote "Lectotype (désigné ici):
Baumann-Bodenheim 13823 (P!; iso-, Z)" while providing a full and direct reference to Guillaumin's Latin description
(Art. 45.1; see Art. 46 Ex.
Note 1. Mere citation of a locality does not constitute mention of a single specimen or gathering. Concrete reference to some detail relating to the actual type, such as the collector's name or collecting number or date, is required.
37.4. For the purpose of this Article, the type of a name of a new species or infraspecific taxon (fossils excepted: see
Art. 8.5) may be an illustration if, and only if, it is impossible to preserve a specimen.
Note 2. Cultures of fungi and algae preserved in a metabolically inactive state are acceptable as types
(Art. 8.4; see also Rec.
37.5. For the name of a new taxon of the rank of genus or below published on or after 1 January 1990, indication of the type must include one of the words "typus" or "holotypus", or its abbreviation, or its equivalent in a modern language (see also Rec. 37A and
37.6. For the name of a new species or infraspecific taxon published on or after 1 January 1990 of which the type is a specimen or unpublished illustration, the single herbarium or collection or institution in which the type is conserved must be specified.
Note 3. Specification of the herbarium or collection or institution may be made in an abbreviated form, e.g. as given in
Index herbariorum, part I, or in the World directory of collections of cultures of microorganisms.
37A.1. The indication of the nomenclatural type should immediately follow the description or diagnosis and should include the Latin word "typus" or "holotypus".
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