45.1. The date of a name is that of its valid publication. When the various conditions for valid publication are not simultaneously fulfilled, the date is that on which the last is fulfilled. However, the name must always be explicitly accepted in the place of its validation. A name published on or after 1 January 1973 for which the various conditions for valid publication are not simultaneously fulfilled is not validly published unless a full and direct reference (Art. 33.2) is given to the places where these requirements were previously fulfilled.
Ex. 1. "Clypeola minor" first appeared in the Linnaean thesis Flora monspeliensis (1756), in a list of names preceded by numerals but without an explanation of the meaning of these numerals and without any other descriptive matter; when the thesis was reprinted in vol. 4 of the Amoenitates academicae (1759), a statement was added explaining that the numbers referred to earlier descriptions published in Magnol's Botanicon monspeliense. However, "Clypeola minor" was absent from the reprint, being no longer accepted by Linnaeus, and the name was not therefore validly published.
Ex. 2. When proposing "Graphis meridionalis" as a new species, Nakanishi (in J. Sci. Hiroshima Univ., ser. B(2), 11: 75. 1966) provided a Latin description but failed to designate a holotype. G. meridionalis Nakan. was validly published in 1967 (in J. Sci. Hiroshima Univ., ser. B(2), 11: 265) when he designated the holotype of the name and provided a full and direct reference to the previous publication.
45.2. After 1 January 2000, when one or more of the other conditions for valid publication have not been met prior to registration, the name must be resubmitted for registration after these conditions have been met.
45.3. A correction of the original spelling of a name (see Art. 32.6 and 60) does not affect its date of valid publication.
Ex. 3. The correction of the orthographical error in Gluta "benghas" (Linnaeus, Mant.: 293. 1771) to Gluta renghas L. does not affect the date of publication of the name even though the correction dates only from 1883 (Engler in Candolle & Candolle, Monogr. Phan. 4: 225).
45.4. For purposes of priority only legitimate names are taken into consideration (see Art. 11, 52, 53, 54). However, validly published earlier homonyms, whether legitimate or not, shall cause rejection of their later homonyms, unless the latter are conserved or sanctioned (but see Art. 15 Note 1).
45.5. If a taxon originally assigned to a group not covered by this Code is treated as belonging to a group of plants other than algae, the authorship and date of any of its names are determined by the first publication that satisfies the requirements for valid publication under this Code. If the taxon is treated as belonging to the algae, any of its names need satisfy only the requirements of the pertinent non-botanical Code for status equivalent to valid publication under the present Code (but see Art. 54, regarding homonymy).
Ex. 4. Amphiprora Ehrenb. (1843) is an available1 name for a genus of animals first treated as belonging to the algae by Kützing (1844). Amphiprora has priority in botanical nomenclature from 1843, not 1844.
Ex. 5. Petalodinium Cachon & Cachon-Enj. (in Protistologia 5: 16. 1969) is available under the International code of zoological nomenclature as the name of a genus of dinoflagellates. When the taxon is treated as belonging to the algae, its name retains its original authorship and date even though the original publication lacked a Latin diagnosis.
Ex. 6. Labyrinthodyction Valkanov (in Progr. Protozool. 3: 373. 1969), although available under the International code of zoological nomenclature as the name of a genus of rhizopods, is not valid when the taxon is treated as belonging to the fungi because the original publication lacked a Latin diagnosis.
Ex. 7. Protodiniferaceae Kof. & Swezy (in Mem. Univ.
Calif. 5: 111. 1921, "Protodiniferidae"), available
under the International code of zoological nomenclature,
is validly published as a name of a family of algae with its original
authorship and date but with the original termination changed
in accordance with Art. 18.4 and 32.6.
45A.1. Authors using new names in works (floras, catalogues,
etc.) written in a modern language should simultaneously comply
with the requirements of valid publication.
45B.1. Authors should indicate precisely the dates of publication
of their works. In a work appearing in parts the last-published
sheet of the volume should indicate the precise dates on which
the different fascicles or parts of the volume were published
as well as the number of pages and plates in each.
45C.1. On separately printed and issued copies of works
published in a periodical, the name of the periodical, the number
of its volume or parts, the original pagination, and the date
(year, month, and day) should be indicated.